lecture notes ch. 2

lecture notes ch. 2 - Chapter 2 Title:BusLawSeal.eps...

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Chapter 2 Courts and Alternative Dispute Resolution C HAPTER O UTLINE I. The Judiciary’s Role in American Government The essential role of the judiciary in the American governmental system is to interpret and  apply the laws to specific situations.  The judiciary can decide, among other things, whether  the laws or actions of the other two branches are constitutional.  The process for making such  a determination is known as judicial review.   The power of judicial review enables the  judicial branch to act as a check on the other two branches of government, in line with the  checks and balances system established by the U.S. Constitution.
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Enhancing Your Lecture— ✫✫❝ Marbury v. Madison (1803) ❜❜✫✫ In the edifice of American law, the  Marbury v. Madison a  decision in 1803 can be viewed as the  keystone of the constitutional arch. The facts of the case were as follows. John Adams, who had lost his  bid for reelection to the presidency to Thomas Jefferson in 1800, feared the Jeffersonians’ antipathy  toward business and toward a strong central government. Adams thus worked feverishly to “pack” the  judiciary with loyal Federalists (those who believed in a strong national government) by appointing what  came to be called “midnight judges”  just  before   Jefferson  took  office. All  of the  fifty-nine  judicial  appointment letters had to be certified and delivered, but Adams’s secretary of state (John Marshall) had  succeeded in delivering only forty-two of them by the time Jefferson took over as president. Jefferson, of  course, refused to order his secretary of state, James Madison, to deliver the remaining commissions. Marshall’s Dilemma William Marbury and three others to whom the commissions had not been delivered sought a writ of  mandamus  (an order directing a government official to fulfill a duty) from the United States Supreme  Court, as authorized by Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789. As fate would have it, John Marshall had  stepped down as Adams’s secretary of state only to become chief justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall  faced a dilemma: If he ordered the commissions delivered, the new secretary of state (Madison) could  simply refuse to deliver them—and the Court had no way to compel action, because it had no police force.  At the same time, if Marshall simply allowed the new administration to do as it wished, the Court’s  power would be severely eroded.
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2011 for the course LAW 3000 taught by Professor Ms.zarac.sette during the Spring '11 term at Hawaii Pacific.

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lecture notes ch. 2 - Chapter 2 Title:BusLawSeal.eps...

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