16 - Cone of depression overpumping water will lead to this...

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Cone of depression: overpumping water will lead to this. Its when overpumping of water causes the ground to take its place. Water footprint Dead zone: nitrogen (pesticides) run off in water and create dead zones by depleting the oxygen in the water. w/o oxygen life dies Mexico subsidence issue: land is sloping down like in cali Hydrologic cycle: holding pattern catches ground water run off Infiltration rate is like this: overland flow rate (ov) = precipitation rate – infiltration rate New Brunswick precipitation is highest during july and august. Not February because it’s the shortest month. LEECHING: water washing materials out of soil 15 SOIL -light 20 fossil -medium 21 nuclear power -medium 22 renewable energy -light 18 water resources -heavy 23 materials, society, and the environment - light lectures: march 24 – April 30, 2009 chapter 15: soil formation starts in regolith regolith is the parent material (mineral material from which soil forms) break up of solid rock is known as weathering weathing can be physical which is disintigration or chemical which is decomposition. Soil is defined as the upper portion of the regolith that has been changed both chemically and biologically, Soil horizon (pg313) is six layers top to bottom: O horizon: loose and partly decayed organic matter A horizon: mineral matter mixed with some humus (A is KNOWN AS top soil.) E horizon: light colored mineral particles, zone eluviation and leaching (water percolates through soil as it is eluvial (washes out)) B horizon: accumulation of minerals transported from above. (B = SUBSOIL and its illuvial, where water washes into) C horizon: partially altered parent material (Substratum where regolith is & no bio R horizon: unweathered parent material bedrock. Soils in forest have three layers. Humus = partially decomposed plant and animal matter.
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Depth at which you reach bedrock is determined by five factors: climate, living organisms, parent material, topography, time. Soil types: 12 general types. . should I memorize them? no Soil is part solid material and part “pore” basically space for air and water. Small particles hold their water or oil more strongly than large particles. Sands: largest soil particles Silt: small, a microscope, but medium Clay: the smallest Total saturation: max water capacity of a soil Wilting point: when plants wilt b/c theres no water in the soil Loam soil is the ideal mixture of sand, silt, and clay. Soil erosion: is the rate at which soil is lost this occurs in three stages: 1. Soil particles detach, transport (step 2) and then they are deposited to a new place (3). Erosion is costly. Economically, farmers usually align their crop rows in straight lines so that theyre tractors use less gas and stuff. But if they exorcised CONTOUR PLOWING they would reduce erosion and increase profit/effectiveness bc the rows follow the slope of elevation on land. SOIL is a potentially renewable resource. Its renewable when farmers manage the soil,
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16 - Cone of depression overpumping water will lead to this...

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