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ENVS 2210 Midterm 1IntroductionHoney Bees are Excellent Biological Study Subjects- They are studied to teach us about ourselves- Characteristics of human interest- Architecture masters, combs are built with perfect hexagons- Perform a dance language to tell sister workers where food sources are located- Pheromone communication- Evolution studies (honey bees and the flowers they visit co-evolve)- Easy to keep bee colonies- Interesting insects that have intrigued artists for decadesHoney Bees are Beneficial and Productive Insects- Produce honey which is a food and medicine source- Pollinate crops that farmers are reliant on- Produce other hive products such as beeswax, pollen, etc.- Provide a source of entertainment for hobby beekeepers, movies and documentariesHistory of Beekeeping- Honey and wax have been widely used since ancient times (9-10 thousand years ago)- Beekeeping most likely started when humans learned to safeguard swarms and coloniesby providing a certain amount of care, keeping them in human-made hives (4-5 thousandyears ago- Egypt)- Bee hives changed little over time, they were elongated and made out of pottery, wood,wicker, straw or cork--had fixed combs- The scientific basis of beekeeping practices became established during the 16th 17th and18th centuries- Apis mellifera, the western honey bee was introduced into the Americas by Europeansettlers in the 17th century- The most useful and important hive design was originally developed in the USA in 1851by Reverend Lorenzo Langstroth- Other beekeeping devices such as the beeswax foundation, the honey extractor, the queenexcluder and the smokey were invented during the 19th centuryApiculture Today- Honey bees are now kept in most parts of the world- Beekeepers maintain about 55 million modern hives, which produce over 950 million kgof honey and about 25 million kg of beeswaxChina and the US are the largest producers but Canada yields most honey per colonyClassification of Honey BeeslOMoARcPSD|5154481- Apis mellifera (the common western honey bee)
The system for naming living organisms (scientific name) was started by C. Linnaeus during the 18th century. Scientific names are binomial (have name and last name); the first name corresponds to the "genus" (generic name), and the second to the "species." The scientific name for the honey bee is Apis melliferaand it is classified as follows:Kingdom: Animalia(all animals) (see Figures 1.11 and 1.12)Phylum: Arthropoda(animals with segmented body and exoskeleton: lack backbonesClass: Insecta(composed of three body regions, with three pairs of legs, one pair of antennae and one or two pairs of wings)Order: Hymenoptera(four-winged insects with constricted abdomen; many with social habits)Superfamily: Apoidea(10-11 families comprising about 20,000 species of bees. Their bodies are adapted to collect and transport pollen and nectar)Family: Apidae(comprised of four subfamilies; includes honey bee species, bumble bees, orchid bees and stingless bees)Genus: Apis(the true honey bees: at least six species within this genus)Species: