CHP 5 Conservation biology 11

CHP 5 Conservation biology 11 - CHP 5 April 6, 2011...

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CHP 5 April 6, 2011 Woodruff - Conservation biology 1 Conservation Biology A synthesis of basic sciences and applied sciences focused on preventing the extinction of species and the degradation of ecological communities and the ecological services they provide. It is a crisis-driven science given the rate of growth of the human population and footprint, and the rate of global climate changes. It seeks to slow or reverse anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity and the biosphere. Ecology Agriculture Evolutionary biology Forestry Anthropology Fisheries Biodiversity Protected areas Sociology Zoos, botanical gardens Wildlife management, Environmentalism Philosophical, religious, ethical underpinnings Romantic Preservationists: Henry David Thoreau, John Muir Conservationists/Exploitative utilitarians: Gifford Pinchot Evolutionary-Ecological Land ethic: Aldo Leopold Environmentalists: Rachel Carson, Paul Ehrlich, Ray Dasmann Conservation biologists: 1978 conference at UCSD, Michael Soulé 1980 Conservation Biology (±rst book) 1985 Society for Conservation Biology Sustainable developers: Rio, IPBES UCSD’s Sustainability Solutions Institute, SSI Michael Soulé SDSU Stanford Malawi UCSD Michigan UCSC Wildlands Project http://www.michaelsoule.com/ Three guiding principles of conservation biology 1. Evolution is the underlying process the evolutionary play 2. The ecological world is dynamic, complex, and largely nonequilibrial the ecological theater 3. Humans are essential parts of the play and the solutions the human predicament Kangaroos/km 2 > 20 10–20 5–10 1–5 0.1–1 < 0.1 Limits of distribution Tasmania Species Range Map: DISTRIBUTION & ABUNDANCE Central, peripheral & marginal populations New areas occupied Year 1996 1989 1974 Species ranges change
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CHP 5 April 6, 2011 Woodruff - Conservation biology 2 N e - genetic effective population size in a local population K - carrying capacity N > N e immigration/ emigration/gene Fow between habitat patches extirpation = local “extinction” Desert bighorn sheep metapopulation Red : occupied Yellow: former range Purple: reintroduced Blue: recolonized POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS (PVA) PVA uses demographic, genetic, environmental and natural catastrophe data to estimate the probability of a population persisting. Extinction risk assessment Modeling the probable impact of various management strategies Metapopulation analysis: species populations persist in core habitat areas connected by dispersal with more ephemeral habitat areas. Minimum viable population (MVP = 50 for short-term survival or 500 for future evolution) – numbers too small Marsh fritillary PVA CAUSES O± EXTINCTION/THREAT 1. 2. Over-exploitation 3. Species introductions Predators/pathogens Competitors 4. Secondary effects Mutualists/Commensals Pollinators/dispersers Pesticides 5. Catastrophes 6. Climate change
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CHP 5 April 6, 2011 Woodruff - Conservation biology 3 EQUILIBRIUM THEORY OF ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY
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CHP 5 Conservation biology 11 - CHP 5 April 6, 2011...

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