Chapter16_Spring2011

Chapter16_Spring2011 - Drug Use Within Major Subcultures...

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Drug Use Within Major Subcultures Chapter 16
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Subculture A subculture is defined as a subgroup within the population whose members share similar values and patterns of related behaviors that differ from the larger population. Internal subcultural forces —shared attitudes about drug use, habitual and/or addictive behavior, etc. External subcultural forces —law enforcement, availability of drug dealers, concerns with being caught using drugs, etc.
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Views About Drug Use/Abuse Outsider’s Perspective - Viewing a group or subculture from outside the group and viewing the group and its members as an observer; looking “in.” Non-users viewing drug-users. Insider’s Perspective - Viewing a group or subculture from inside the group; seeing members as they perceive themselves. Drug users in agreement with other drug users or sympathizers.
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Athletes and Drug Abuse Studies have shown that athletes are not more likely than non-athletes to use drugs of abuse such as marijuana, alcohol, barbiturates, cocaine, and hallucinogens. However, athletes are much more likely than other subcultures of drug users to take drugs (ergogenic drugs) to enhance performance. © SW Productions/Photodisc/Getty Images
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Drugs Used by Athletes Anabolic steroids consist of a group of natural and synthetic drugs that are chemically similar to cholesterol and related to the male hormone testosterone. Naturally occurring male hormones, or androgens , are produced by the testes in males. These are responsible for secondary sex characteristics.
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Major Reasons For The Use and/or Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: Improve athletic performance. Increase muscle size or reduce body fat. Experienced physical or sexual abuse (e.g., female weightlifters who had been raped were found to be twice as like to use anabolic steroids). Adolescent steroid abusers often take risks such as drinking and driving, carrying a gun, driving a motorcycle without a helmet, and abusing other types of illicit drugs. Muscle dysmorphia , which is a behavioral syndrome that causes individuals to have a distorted image of their bodies (i.e., perceiving themselves as looking small and weak, even when they may be large and muscular), may also occur.
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Key Factors for Using Anabolic Steroids Athlete’s motivation Level of competition Type of Sport Pressure for winning
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by Athletes Under some conditions, androgen-like drugs can increase muscle mass and strength. It is estimated that as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using these drugs to achieve a “competitive edge.” 2% of college-aged men. 6.7% of male high school athletes. 1% of female high school athletes.
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Chapter16_Spring2011 - Drug Use Within Major Subcultures...

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