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Week 1 Guide for Independent Learning

Week 1 Guide for Independent Learning - Week 1 Guide for...

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Week 1 Guide for Independent Learning As you read Chapters 1-2 and 4, formulate answers to these questions. 1. Describe the unifying themes of biology. Evolution is the overarching theme of biology. (1) New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy (Biosphere>Ecosystems>Communities>Populations>Organisms>Organs and Organ Systems>Tissues>Cells>Organelles>Molecules). (2) Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. (3) Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization (Form fits function; a leaf is flat and wide to better perform photosynthesis.) (4) Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function. (5) The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA. (6) Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems. 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology. Biosphere>Ecosystems>Communities>Populations>Organisms>Organs and Organ Systems>Tissues>Cells>Organelles>Molecules 3. Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization. 4. Describe seven emergent properties associated with life. (1) Order (Living things maintain order, their structures are not randomly assembled, resist entropy/randomness), (2) reproduction, (3) growth and development (living things take in raw materials and use energy to grow),(4) energy utilization and metabolism (living things take energy from the Sun or eat other organisms and maintain metabolism), (5) regulation (organisms regulate their chemical and physical states in a healthy range), (6) evolutionary adaptation, and (7) response to the environment (Venus Flytrap responds to a fly landing in its mouth.) 5. Distinguish between holism and reductionism. Reductionism is the breaking down of a system into smaller parts to understand a system. Holism is the idea that all properties of a given system can’t be determined or explained by its components alone; the system must be viewed as a whole to be understood. 6. Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the cell theory. 7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are only the DNA chromosomes inside a cell membrane. Eukaryotic cells have organelles and a true nucleus which contains the chromosomes. Eukaryotic cells are much larger. 8. List the Domains and kingdoms of life and distinguish among them.
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3 domains of life: (1) Archaea (archebacteria), (2) Bacteria (eubacteria), (3) Eukarya (fungi, plantae and animalia) Both archaea and bacteria consist of prokaryotic organisms, eukarya consists of eukaryotic organisms. Kingdoms include animalia (multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms), plantae (multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis for energy), fungi (absorbs nutrients from surroundings like mushrooms), protista (single- cell eukaryotes and microorganisms).
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Week 1 Guide for Independent Learning - Week 1 Guide for...

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