Chapter 2 - Atomic structure, bonding, and properties

Chapter 2 - Atomic structure, bonding, and properties - 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Things you had in chemistry and will probably remember in just a few minutes! : Why do atoms bond together to form solid materials? What types of characteristic bonds do the different classes of materials have? What properties of the different types of materials result from their particular type of bonding? CHAPTER 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE, BONDING AND PROPERTIES Atomic Structure atom electrons 9.11 x 10-31 kg protons neutrons atomic number (Z) = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons (if neutral, not ionic) A = atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C ~ mass of a P or N Atomic wt = wt of 6.022 x 10 23 molecules or atoms amu/atom = g/mol 2 } 1.67 x 10-27 kg (mass of e- = 1/1000 mass of P or N) (1 mole) c02f01 c02f01 Bohrs early model of the atom Electron Orbitals c02f05 c02f05 Later model with sub-orbitals c02f02 c02f02 Electronic Structure Each orbital at discrete energy level is determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s, p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,, n-1) m = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (-l to +l) 6 c02tf01 c02tf01 Electron Energy States 8 1 s 2 s 2 p K-shell n = 1 L-shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M-shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N-shell n = 4 have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons... Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e c02f04 c02f04 Overlap in energy level (filling) of orbitals e.g, 4s fills before 3d 10 SURVEY OF ELEMENTS Why? Valence (outer) shell usually not filled completely....
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2011 for the course EMA 3010 taught by Professor Unknown during the Summer '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 2 - Atomic structure, bonding, and properties - 1...

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