Chapter 13- Types and applications of materials

Chapter 13- Types and applications of materials - Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... • Common metal and alloy systems Chapter 13: Types and Applications of Materials • Types of ceramics • Types/classifications of polymers For what applications are they selected? Chapter 13 - 2 Ferrous Alloys Iron-based alloys Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE) 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel-- >11% Cr Example: “18-8” is most common, Fe-18Cr, 8Ni Austenitic, non-magnetic • Steels • Cast Irons Chapter 13 - 3 Refinement of Steel from Ore Iron Ore Coke Limestone 3CO + Fe 2 O 3 → 2Fe +3CO 2 C + O → CO 2 CO 2 + C → 2CO CaCO → CaO+CO 2 CaO + SiO 2 + Al 2 O 3 → slag purification reduction of iron ore to metal heat generation Molten iron BLAST FURNACE slag air layers of coke and iron ore gas refractory vessel Chapter 13 - 4 Adapted from Fig. 10.28, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. 10.28 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in- Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) Adapted from Fig. 13.1, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Classification of Metal Alloys Metal Alloys Steels Ferrous Nonferrous Cast Irons <1.4wt%C 3-4.5wt%C Steels <1.4 wt% C Cast Irons 2.5-4.5 wt% C Fe 3 C cementite 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7 L γ austenite γ + L γ +Fe 3 C α ferrite α +Fe 3 C α + γ L +Fe 3 C δ (Fe) C o , wt% C Eutectic: Eutectoid: 0.76 4.30 727°C 1148°C T (°C) microstructure: steel matrix + Graphite or cementite particles Chapter 13 - 5 Based on data provided in Tables 13.1(b), 13.2(b), 13.3, and 13.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Steels Low Alloy High Alloy low carbon <0.25 wt% C Med carbon 0.25-0.6 wt% C high carbon 0.6-1.4 wt% C Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades pistons gears wear applic. wear applic. drills saws dies high T applic. turbines furnaces Very corros. resistant Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304, 409 Additions none Cr,V Ni, Mo none Cr, Ni Mo none Cr, V, Mo, W Cr, Ni, Mo plain HSLA plain heat treatable plain tool stainless Name Hardenability + + ++ ++ +++ varies TS- + ++ + ++ varies EL + +---- ++ increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility Chapter 13 - 6 Cast Irons • Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C – more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt% C • Low melting – relatively easy to cast • Generally brittle • Typically steel matrix with graphite or cementite particles • Cementite in pearlite may decompose to ferrite + graphite (pearlite domposition): Fe 3 C 3 Fe ( α ) + C (graphite) “Steel matrix” (pearlite) Graphite flakes Cementite chunks Chapter 13 - 7 Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram...
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2011 for the course EMA 3010 taught by Professor Unknown during the Summer '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 13- Types and applications of materials - Chapter...

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