Class Notes - Emotional and Personality Development(4-7...

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Emotional and Personality Development (4-7) Common patterns in Development of Emotions and the Self Emotional Patterns in Development of Emotions and the Self Emotional development in infants 1 st emotion (w/in hours): Distress By 4-7 months: Begin to see anger 1 st days of life: see ½ smile By 6 weeks: see a social smile By 3-4 months: see laughter Earliest laughter and anger is due to having or loosing control ever an object( e.g. rattle) Emotional Development in Toddler years Anger intensifies by age 2 Toddlers also get better at handling it » Take action (climb out of playpen) » Get help (point to object) » Soothe selves (look away, suck thumb) Smiling and laughter become more selective by 12 months of age Development if Self-Awareness: The awareness of “me” vs. “you” Before age 1 most infants don’t have a sense of where my body ends and yours begins By 15-24 months most kids recognize themselves as separate » Experiment: mirror and rouge task Self-Awareness and self-consciousness Only if self- awareness is present you see Embarrassment if given big praise (hide face, look away and smile) Guilt: children may show distress or anxiety at a misdeed
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Pride at a misdeed: defying the rule Individual Differences: Development of Personality How do the emotional devs. And sense of self combine to form a distinct individual Psychological (nurture) Theories: Learning theories: » Operant conditioning (reward and punishment) » Social learning theory (observation and imitation) Psychoanalytic Theories » Freud’s psychosexual stages » Erickson’s psychosocial stages The Role of Nature: Temperament Definition: relatively consistent basic disposition that lead to consistent patterns in an infant’s behavior Many dimensions proposed—3 agreed on: » Emotionality o How easily upset o How upset they get o How long it takes to settle down » Activity o Physical activity » Sociability o Interest in people and faces o Like ore dislike for having people around and having contact Other common ways to describe temperament » Easy » Difficult
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» Slow to warm up Relatively stable over time but adaptive-ness can be increased or decreased by Goodness of Fit of Environment (compatibility of child’s temperament w/ their social world)—emphasizes how personality is determined by both nature and nurture » Environment increasingly influences personality over time (started by nature, continued by nurture) Current Trait Theories Costa and McRae’s Model : The Big Five » O penness » C onscientiousness » E xtroversion » A greeableness » N euroticism Big Five dimensions correspond to temperament dimensions, identifiable early in life By 30 our rankings on each are set and remain stable over time The dimensions are universal (consistent across cultures) Personality Over Time No systematic relationship between early temperament and adult personality
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