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notes 1-29--2-5 - Delvelopmental Theories Theories of human...

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Delvelopmental Theories Theories of human development Theory: ideas proposed to describe/explain certain phenomenon o Organizes facts/observations o Guides collection of a new data Should be internally consistent Falsifiable- hypothesis can be tested Supported by data Major Groups of developmental theories ( 4 main/classical types) 1. Psychodynamic theories- most focus on parent-child relationships o Human behavior is governed by internal unconscious motives and drives o Development occurs in discontinuous stages o Both nature(innate drives) and nurture(early experience in life) are important o Exs. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson’s theories Erik Erikson o Most influential neo-Freudian o Some differences w/ Freud Less emphasis on sexual urges More emphasis on rational ego More positive, adaptive view of human nature Development continues through adulthood Erikson’s stages- approximate ages o Trust vs. mistrust-- importance of responsive caregiver o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt—preschool o Initiative vs. guilt- preschool o Industry vs. inferiority—school-age children
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o Identity vs. role confusion—adolescence o Intimacy vs. isolation—young adult o Generativity vs. stagnation—middle age (where “mid life crisis” came from) o Integrity vs. despair—old 2. Learning Theories o Person Consists of connections between stimulus inputs (hearing a direction), behavioral responses (follow it), and consequences (reward/punish) o Learning is continuous and gradual o Emphasizes nurture (role of environment) o Exs. Behaviorism (skinner) and Cognitive social learning Theory (Bandura- below)
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