notes 1-29--2-10 - Delvelopmental Theories Theories of...

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Delvelopmental Theories Theories of human development Theory: ideas proposed to describe/explain certain phenomenon o Organizes facts/observations o Guides collection of a new data Should be internally consistent Falsifiable- hypothesis can be tested Supported by data Major Groups of developmental theories ( 4 main/classical types) 1. Psychodynamic theories- most focus on parent-child relationships o Human behavior is governed by internal unconscious motives and drives o Development occurs in discontinuous stages o Both nature(innate drives) and nurture(early experience in life) are important o Exs. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson’s theories Erik Erikson o Most influential neo-Freudian o Some differences w/ Freud Less emphasis on sexual urges More emphasis on rational ego More positive, adaptive view of human nature Development continues through adulthood Erikson’s stages- approximate ages o Trust vs. mistrust-- importance of responsive caregiver o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt—preschool o Initiative vs. guilt- preschool o Industry vs. inferiority—school-age children
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o Identity vs. role confusion—adolescence o Intimacy vs. isolation—young adult o Generativity vs. stagnation—middle age (where “mid life crisis” came from) o Integrity vs. despair—old 2. Learning Theories o Person Consists of connections between stimulus inputs (hearing a direction), behavioral responses (follow it), and consequences (reward/punish) o Learning is continuous and gradual o Emphasizes nurture (role of environment) o Exs. Behaviorism (skinner) and Cognitive social learning Theory (Bandura- below) Development is due to: Continuous, reciprocal interactions between person and environment Observational Lerarning (OL) Cognitive Activity o We anticipate consequences o We develop self-efficacy o We reinforce ourselves w/ mental praise or criticism 3. Cognitive developmental theories o Innate programmed psychological structures evolve and determine how a child understands the world o Dev. Occurs in discontinuous stages o Nature(unfolding of structures) and nurture (a stimulating environment) are emphasized o Exs. Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory Basic characteristics A stage theory focused on processes of developing cognitive reasoning and problem solving abilities
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Developing person is an active explorer Development result of acquiring increasingly complex cognitive schema Schema are patterns of action and thought Schema develop as a result of interactions of child with the environment 4. Ecological Systems Theory o Person develops w/in a series of interacting systems (parents, school, culture) o Person’s development is a continuous and gradual growth o Nature (personality characteristics) and nurture (family, neighborhood, govt. policies) constantly interact
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 230 taught by Professor Phillips during the Fall '08 term at Iowa State.

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notes 1-29--2-10 - Delvelopmental Theories Theories of...

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