L15-fuelcell1 - Fuel Cells 1 8/19/2005 LECTURE LECTURE...

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Unformatted text preview: Fuel Cells 1 8/19/2005 LECTURE LECTURE LECTURE LECTURE # # # # 15 15 15 15 TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC: F u e l C e l l s Fuel Cells 2 8/19/2005 Fuel Cell Technology History s The developments leading to an operational fuel cell can be traced back to the early 1800s s Sir William Grove - discovered in 1839 s First half of the 20 th century -foundation for systems used in the Gemini and Apollo space flights s 1959 Francis T. Bacon success-fully demonstrated the first fully operational fuel cell s Proton exchange membrane fuel cells were first used by NASA in the 1960s as part of the Gemini space program Fuel Cells 3 8/19/2005 Fuel Cell Technology Advantages of Fuel Cells s These systems operate without pollution when run on pure hydrogen - the only by-products being pure water and heat s These systems operate at higher thermodynamic efficiency than heat engines s Fuel cells exhibit higher efficiency at part load than at full load and with less variation over the entire operating range s Fuel cells, like batteries, are solid state devices that react chemically and instantly to changes in load s When used as an electrical energy generating device, fuel cells require fewer energy transformations than those associated with a heat engine Fuel Cells 4 8/19/2005 Fuel Cell Technology Advantages of Fuel Cells s Fuel cells require little warm-up time, high temperature hazards are reduced, and the thermodynamic efficiency of the electro-chemical reaction is inherently better s Fuel cells generate pure hot water and medium-grade heat, both of which can potentially be used in association with domestic or industrial applications thus increasing the overall efficiency s Fuel cell systems do not require tuning s Fuel cell systems do not require recharging Fuel Cells 5 8/19/2005 Figure: Power Generating Systems Efficiency Comparison Fuel Cell Technology Source: http://w4.siemens.de/FuI/en/archiv/zeitschrift/heft1_00/artikel09/fuelcell4_e.jpg Fuel Cells 6 8/19/2005 Disadvantages of Fuel Cells s Hydrogen in fuel cells is difficult to manufacture and store s Fuel cells require relatively pure fuel, free of specific contaminants (sulfur and carbon compounds) s Automotive applications require platinum catalyst to promote the power generation reaction which is rare and very expensive s Fuel cells must not freeze with water inside as it can cause irreversible expansion damage if permitted to freeze Fuel Cell Technology Fuel Cells 7 8/19/2005 Disadvantages of Fuel Cells s Fuel cells that use proton exchange membranes must not dry out during use and must remain moist during storage as it can lead to membrane damage s Fuel cells require complex support and control systems s Fuel cell systems are heavy...
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L15-fuelcell1 - Fuel Cells 1 8/19/2005 LECTURE LECTURE...

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