L22-fuecelll3-2 - Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 1 8/19/2005 LECTURE LECTURE LECTURE LECTURE # # # # 22 22 22 22 TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC: F u e l C e l l H y b r i d E l e c t r i c V e h i c l e s Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2 8/19/2005 Hybrid Electrical Vehicles s Power Units b The auxiliary power unit (APU) of a hybrid vehicle s Supplies the baseline power required to the vehicle s Recharges the batteries and powers accessories such as the air conditioner and heater b The APU can consist of a mechanical type engine or a fuel cell b A mechanical type engine can be s Spark ignition engine s Compression ignition engine s Rotary engine s Turbine engine s Stirling engine Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 3 8/19/2005 s Spark Ignition Engine b In 1862, Beau de Rochas proposed a sequence of operations that remains typical of most spark ignition engines b The four-stroke cycle requires two revolutions of the crankshaft for each power stroke and allows the piston to slide back and forth in the cylinder while transmitting the power to the drive shaft Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 4 8/19/2005 Figure: Four-Stroke Engine Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/tech_validation/pdfs/fcm08r0.pdf Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5 8/19/2005 b The spark ignition engine has s A simple, mature, well under-stood design s A good power-to-weight ratio s And the ability to burn gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane or hydrogen s It has well developed emission controls b Some of the disadvantages are s Poor part-load efficiency s Relatively high uncontrolled emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 6 8/19/2005 s To produce a higher output from the same size engine and to obtain some valve simplification, the two-stroke cycle was developed by Dugald Clerk in 1878 s This cycle is applicable both to compression ignition and to spark ignition operation, but has been primarily successful only with the latter s The two-stroke engines combustion cycle is completed in two strokes (one revolution) of the crankshaft as opposed to the four strokes (two revolutions) required by the four-stroke engine Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 7 8/19/2005 Figure: Two-Stroke Engine Operations Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/tech_validation/pdfs/fcm08r0.pdf Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 8 8/19/2005 Compared to the four-stroke, the two-stroke engine has Advantages Higher power-to-weight ratio A simpler design Lower manufacturing costs It is lightweight Disadvantages The emissions are a major problem There are relatively high uncontrolled hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions Emission control systems have not been sufficiently developed Two-stroke engines are common in small gasoline motors, such as on chainsaws and smaller motorcycles Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles...
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L22-fuecelll3-2 - Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles 1...

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