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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology An...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology: An Overview 0. 1. What is it? 1. 2. How common is it? 2. 3. What to do about it? 3. 4. How to study it? 1. What is it? What Do We Mean by Abnormal Behavior? 4. There is no consensus definition 0. Abnormality, disorder 5. There are, however, some clear elements of abnormality 6. Prototypes 1. Prototype model The Elements of Abnormality 7. Elements of abnormality include The Elements of Abnormality 8. However, no one element is sufficient to define and determine abnormality, and what is considered deviant changes as society changes 9. Example: homosexuality 10.Issue: “flavor of the month disorder” The DSM­IV Definition of Mental Disorder The DSM­IV Definition of Mental Disorder 0. A ‘clinically significant’ behavioral or psychological 1. 2. 3. syndrome or pattern Associated with distress or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) Not merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (e.g., the death of a loved one) Considered to reflect behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual Classifying Abnormal Behavior 11.DSM classification does have limitations 12.Wakefield defines a mental disorder as a condition that 2. Causes significant distress or disability 3. Is not merely an expectable response to a particular event 4. Is a manifestation of harmful mental dysfunction 5. Concept of ‘harmful mental dysfunction’ reflect social values Why Do We Need to Classify Mental Disorders? 13.Classification systems provide us with a nomenclature that allows us to structure information (naming; labels) allows for communication social and political implications labeling; profiling; insurance 14.Classification of disorders, not people 14. 15.Problems: stereotyping, stigma 6. Loss of information; over­generalization Cultural Influences in Abnormality 16.Cultural factors influence the presentation of disorders found all over the globe 17.Certain forms of psychopathology are highly culture­specific 18.Some unconventional actions and behaviors are universally considered the product of mental disorder 2. How common is it? Prevalence and Incidence 19.Epidemiology – the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health­related behaviors in a given population 20.Gender, cultural, racial, social differences 21.Problem of defining and identifying 7. Continuum, cultural differences, social stigma, self­ definition, treatment Prevalence and Incidence 22.Prevalence – the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time 8. Prevalence is typically expressed as percentages 8. 9. Different types of prevalence estimates include point prevalence, one­year prevalence, and lifetime prevalence Prevalence and Incidence 23.Incidence – the number of new cases in a population over a given period of time 10. Incidence figures are typically lower than prevalence figures, because they exclude already existing cases 11. Continuing problem of definition and change Prevalence of DSM­IV Disorders in Adults Most Common Individual DSM­IV Disorders 3. What to do about it? Treatment 24.Not all people receive treatment 12. Use of medication or self­medication 25.The vast majority of treatment is done on an outpatient basis vs inpatient 13. Patients who need inpatient hospitalization are now typically admitted to the psychiatric units of general hospitals or to private hospitals (cost, insurance, disruption) The Mental Health “Team” 26.Diagnosis and assessment may involve a number 26. of participants who 14. Play differing roles in the process 15. Gather data germane to a comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s situation Personnel in Mental Health Professionals Personnel in Mental Health Paraprofessionals 4. How to study it? 27.Research/empirical orientation of text and course Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology 28.To avoid misconception and error we must adopt a scientific attitude and approach to the study of abnormal behavior 29.Contrast to ‘pop’ ideas 16. Books, media, claims Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology 30.This requires a focus on research and research methods including an appreciation of the distinction between what is observable and what is hypothetical or inferred 31.Note problem of attribution 31. Sources of Information 32.Case study ­ Freud 33.Direct observation – teacher/student 34.Psychophysiological variables 17. Hormones, blood sugar 35.Self­report data – from interviews 36.Advanced ways to study behavior 18. Technology: MRI; PET; CAT Forming Hypotheses about Behavior 37.Ask WHY? 38.Anecdotal accounts can help researchers develop hypotheses 39.These hypotheses must be tested in well­designed research studies Sampling and Generalization 40.Problems of definition and identification 41.Who should researchers include in a study? 19. Individuals who are similar in their behavioral abnormalities 20. A study group should mirror the underlying population in all important ways 21. Large, randomly selected groups are ideal Criterion and Comparison Groups 42.To test hypotheses, researchers use a comparison group of people who 22. Do not exhibit the disorder 22. 23. Are comparable in other major respects to the criterion group (people with the disorder) 24. E.g. depressed vs non­depressed Studying the World as It Is: Observational Research Designs 43.Correlational research 44.Observational research studies things as they are 45.It is an excellent way to determine correlation 46.Correlation is NOT necessarily causation 25. Dental plaque and heart disease Studying the World as It Is: Observational Research Designs 47.One must be aware that if two variables are correlated, there are multiple possible reasons for this 26. Variable A could cause variable B 27. Variable B could cause variable A 28. Variable A and variable B could both be caused by rd variable C (3 variable) 29. Variables A and B could both be involved in a complex pattern of variables influencing A and B in similar ways Manipulating Variables: Experimental Strategies 48.Experimental research involves 30. Manipulating one variable (the independent 30. variable) 31. Seeing what effect this has on another variable (the dependent variable) 49.Experimental research can determine causation 32. E.g. effect of medication on depression Studying the Efficacy of Therapy 50.Should a treated group show significantly more improvement than an untreated group, one can have confidence in the treatment’s efficacy (e.g. Eysenck) 51.If one treatment has already been established as beneficial, comparative outcome research has much to recommend it 33. Consumer’s Report on treatment Single­Case Experimental Designs 52.Single­case experimental designs (e.g., ABAB designs) can also be used to make causal inferences in individual cases 53.E.g. child yells in class: 34. Attend; ignore; attend Animal Research 54.When deciding whether to conduct animal research, the researcher must weigh the following factors: 35. Ethical issues 36. Advantages 37. Generalizability 37. 38. E.g. learned helplessness Principles of text & course 55.1. A scientific approach (empirical foundation) 56.2. Openness to new ideas (creativity, change) 57.3. Respect for the dignity, integrity, and growth potential of all persons, especially those whose current functioning may be compromised by psychological problems ...
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