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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Historical and Contemporary...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior 0. 1. 2. 1. Early views 2. Humanitarian reform 3. Contemporary views Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 0. Ancient Treatment 3. Stone Age trephining involved chipping away a circular section of skull 4. The Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri indicate that the Egyptians used surgery th and prayers (16 century BC) 0. Brain is the site of functions Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 1. People were treated differently if thought to be possessed by good spirits rather than evil spirits 2. Anti­religious = evil 3. Pro­religious = good 4. Exorcism was the primary treatment for demonic possession (c.f. Bible) Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 5. Hippocrates’ early (400 BC) medical concepts included 5. Proposing that mental disorders had natural causes 5. (brain pathology) 6. Categorizing disorders as mania, melancholia, or phrenitis (body fluid disorder) 7. Associating dreams and personality Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 6. Hippocrates’ early (400 BC) medical concepts further included 8. Role of heredity and predispositions th 9. Description of humors reflected in 20 century personality research 10. Treatment of disorders 1. Diet, exercise, lower stress Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 7. Plato (400 BC) 11. Viewed psychological phenomena as responses to the whole organism 12. Emphasized individual differences (IQ) and sociocultural influences 13. Hospital care for treatment 8. Aristotle wrote a lasting description of consciousness Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior 9. Later ancient western views 14. Egyptians proposed a wide range of therapeutic measures 15. Low stress, social support, exercise, education 15. 16. Galen provided an anatomy of the nervous system (150 AD) 17. Comfort was key to Roman medicine 18. 'Contrariis contrarius' 2. (Roman Baths) Abnormality During the Middle Ages 0. The Middle East had a scientific approach 0. 792 AD first mental hospital in Bagdad 1. Europe was plagued with mass madness such as 1. Tarantism/Saint Vitus’s dance 2. Lycanthropy (wolf possession) 3. Group hysteria 2. Rituals, superstition Abnormality During the Middle Ages 3. Exorcism was still a popular European treatment (12th­17th cent.) 4. Stresses of plagues, wars, famine 5. The extent of people’s fear of witchcraft is now questioned 4. Probably not mental illness but opposition to church 5. (problem of interpreting history) Toward Humanitarian Approaches 10.The Renaissance led to a resurgence of scientific questioning in Europe 11.Paracelsus (16th cent.) 19. Rejected demonology 12.Johann Weyer 12. 20. existence of mental disorders Toward Humanitarian Approaches 13.The sixteenth century saw the establishment of early asylums and shrines 21. These were often no more than prisons (madhouses) 22. St Mary of Bethlehem – London 23. Inmates treated as beasts 24. In U.S. – Williamsburg – public hospital exclusively for mental illness Humanitarian Reform 18th cent. 6. In France, Pinel successfully experimented with treating mental patients with kindness 7. A man named Tuke performed similar work in England (Quaker retreat in York) 8. Benjamin Rush (psychiatrist) pushed moral management in America 9. From 1841 to 1881, Dorothy Dix carried on a zealous campaign about the inhumane treatment of the mentally ill Humanitarian Reform 18th cent 14.Pinel, Tuke, Rush & Dix began the mental hygiene movement 25. Moral and spiritual development 26. Mental issues, not physical issues, were focus Nineteenth­Century Views of Mental Nineteenth­Century Views of Mental Disorders 15.19th century: Medical professionals and alienists gained control of the asylums (psychiatrists) 16.Medical: Mental hygiene movement (shift in focus toward more physical issues) 17.Alienists (people who treated ‘alienated’ people) touted Victorian morality as important to good mental health Changing Attitudes Toward Mental Health in the Early 20th Century 18.Clifford Beers described his own mental collapse in A Mind That Found Itself 19.Beers then began a campaign for reform 27. (more humane treatment) Mental Hospital Care in the 20th Century 10.By 1940’s, most mental hospitals were harsh, inhumane, and ineffective 11.Mary Jane Ward published The Snake Pit, which called attention to the plight of mental patients 12. Huge hospitals (400,000 patients in US) with lengthy stays; ineffective 6. Milledgeville, GA 10,000 patients Mental Hospital Care in the 20th Century 13.The 1946 organization of the National Institute of Mental 13. Health and the passage of the Hill–Burton Act further reformed care 14. The Community Health Services Act was passed in 1963 (John Kennedy) 7. Cleaned out hospitals; created community mental health centers; utilized medication 15. Deinstitutionalization lead to mixed result 8. Homeless mentally ill, street people Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior 20.Since 1950’s changes include: 28. 1. Biological discoveries 29. 2. The development of a classification system for mental disorders 30. 3. The emergence of psychological causation views 31. 4 .Experimental psychological research developments 1.Establishing the Link Between the Brain and Mental Disorder 21.Understanding was greatly increased by 32. Technological discoveries 33. Scientific advancements in the biological sciences 22.The discovery of a connection between general paresis and syphilis was a major milestone (brain pathology as cause) 2.The development of a classification system for mental disorders 23.Emil Kraepelin’s Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie marked 23. the beginning of a classification system of mental disorders 24.The identification of patterns of symptoms 25.Logic: identify patterns and develop treatments for each pattern of symptoms 3. Causation Views: Establishing the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder 26.Mesmerism (Vienna – Anton Mesmer) 34. Involved treating diseases by “animal magnetism” 35. Was a source of heated discussion in the 19th century 27.Scientists at the Nancy School proposed that hysteria could be both caused and removed by hypnosis 28.Introduced notion of psychological causation 3. Causation Views: Establishing the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder 29.Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) took the first major steps toward understanding psychological factors in mental disorders 30.His theories have evolved into the psychoanalytic perspective 31.Psychoanalysis emphasizes the inner dynamics of unconscious motives 3. Causation Views: Establishing the 3. Causation Views: Establishing the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder 32.Psychoanalysis concentrates on 36. 37. 38. 39. Catharsis The unconscious Free association Dream analysis 4. Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: Origins 16. Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig (1879) 17.J. McKeen Cattell brought Wundt’s methods to the United States 18. Lightner Witmer established the first American psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania (1896) 19. Soon after, the first psychological journals hit the press (1906) 4. Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: The Behavioral Perspective 33.Classical conditioning 40. Ivan Pavlov demonstrated that dogs will salivate to a nonfood stimulus once regularly accompanied by food 41. John B. Watson emphasized the study of overt behavior 34.Operant conditioning 42. E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner studied how the 42. consequences of behavior influence behavior Viewpoints since 1900 35.What causes people to act maladaptively 36.If know causes then: 43. May be able to prevent or reverse 44. May be able to classify based on cause 37.Process of causation is complex 45. Often refer to ‘risk’ factors, not causes 38.This will be covered in Chapter 3 beginning with next lecture Unresolved Issues 39.Unresolved issues include interpreting historical events and the influence of biases End of Chapter 2 ...
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