Chapter 3 - Psyc 3230 02/09/2011 08:21:00 ← ← Causal...

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Unformatted text preview: Psyc 3230 02/09/2011 08:21:00 ← ← Causal Factors and Viewpoints in Abnormal Psychology I. ← 1. Causes and risk factors ← 2. Biological viewpoints • Viewpoints since 1900 ← What causes people to act maladaptively • If know causes then: o May be able to prevent, reverse or treat o May be able to classify based on cause ← Process of causation is complex ← Often refer to ‘risk’ factors, not causes ← Causes and Risk Factors • Etiology – the causal pattern of abnormal behavior • Necessary cause – must exist for a disorder to occur (rare) o Disease causes illness o Rarely found in psychological disorders • Sufficient cause – guarantees the occurrence of a disorder o Hopelessness leads to depression o But depression can be caused by other factors • Contributory cause – increases the probability of developing a disorder ← e.g. parental abuse increases risk for personality disorders ← Causes and Risk Factors ← It is important to distinguish between distal causal factors and proximal (immediate) causal factors ← A reinforcing contributory cause maintains maladaptive behavior that is already occurring ← Withdrawal in depression – loss of social support ← Causes and Risk Factors ← Our concepts of causal relationships must take into account the following: ← Feedback ← E.g. feedback from body – anxiety attack ← Patterns of interaction ← View world as hostile – hostile interactions ← Circularity ← Suspicious spouse aversive to partner ← Diathesis-stress models ← Causes and Risk Factors ← Diathesis-stress models ← Diathesis – relatively distal necessary or contributory cause that is not sufficient to cause the disorder ← Predisposition; increased vulnerability ← Genetic, psychological, socio-cultural ← Stress – the response of an individual to proximal demands perceived as taxing ← (assume that if diathesis makes vulnerable, stress precipitates problem) ← Additive model: summation reaches threshold ← Interactive model: combination like on/off switch ← ← Causes and Risk Factors • Protective factors – influences that modify a person’s response to environmental stressors, making adverse consequences less likely • Resilience – the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances ← Multi-causal & variability throughout life ← Viewpoints for Understanding Causes of Abnormal Behavior ← Viewpoints : • Help professionals organize observations • Provide systems of thought • Suggest areas of focus • Viewpoints are theoretical constructions devised to orient psychologists in the study of abnormal behavior ← Many theorists are pushing for a more integrative biopsychosocial viewpoint ← Trends in areas of focus • 1. biological viewpoint (genetics and physiology ) • 2. behavioral & cognitive-behavioral viewpoints (psychological processes ) • 3. sociocultural viewpoint (society and culture ) • 4. biopsychosocial viewpoint (integration of 1 thru 3 above4....
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This note was uploaded on 09/06/2011 for the course PSYC 3230 taught by Professor Hoyt during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter 3 - Psyc 3230 02/09/2011 08:21:00 ← ← Causal...

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