Chapter 1 and Introduction-Students (part 2)

Chapter 1 and Introduction-Students (part 2) - Gestalt...

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9/6/11 Gestalt – “good figure” psychology. Started with Wertheimer, who studied sensation and perception. Gestalt ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology , a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving. Gestalt Psychology
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9/6/11 Figure 1.1 A Gestalt Perception The eye tends to “fill in” the blanks hereand sees both of these figures as circles rather than as a series of dots or a broken line.
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9/6/11 Max Wertheimer (apparent motion)
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9/6/11 Wolfgang Köhler
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9/6/11 Psychoanalysis - the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s patients suffered from nervous disorders with no found physical cause. Freud proposed that there is an unconscious (unaware) mind into which we push, or repress , all of our threatening urges and desires. He believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created nervous disorders. Freud stressed the importance of early childhood experiences. Psychoanalysis
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9/6/11 Sigmund Freud
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9/6/11 1. Psychodynamic perspective - modern version of psychoanalysis. More focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations. 2. Behavioral perspective – B. F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior. Behaviorism became a major force in the twentieth century. Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism. Modern Perspectives
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9/6/11 3. Humanistic perspective Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy. Humanists held the view that people have free will , the freedom to choose their own destiny. Early founders: Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be. Modern Perspectives
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9/6/11 4. Cognitive perspective - focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning – cognitive neuroscience. 4. Sociocultural perspective - focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture. Modern Perspectives
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9/6/11 6. Biological perspective - attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system . 7. Evolutionary psychology- focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value. Modern Perspectives
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9/6/11 Psychiatrist - a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalyst - either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.
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