migratorytend - Journal of Identity and Migration Studies...

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Journal of Identity and Migration Studies Volume 1, number 2, 2007 3 THEMATIC ARTICLES – PATTERNS OF ROMANIANS’ MIGRATION Transnational Labor Mobility of Romanians: Empirical Findings on Recent Migratory Trends Viviana ANDREESCU and Violeta ALEXANDRU Abstract. Over the past seventeen years, the level of out-migration from Romania has been constantly examined by national and international researchers. In particular, a growing interest has been noted following the accession of Romania to the European Union in January 2007. Drawing on IPP data collected in January 2007 on a representative sample (N = 1014) of the Romanian adult population, the present paper intends to assess the current level of potential temporary out-migration and compare it to international migratory tendencies registered in the country in the early 1990s. Multivariate analyses will be used to identify the factors more likely to predict short-term labor migration of Romanians. 1. European Migration: Brief Overview Globalization and migration are two interconnected phenomena that dominate today’s world. The internationalization of capital, improvements in global corporate activities and trade liberalization, significant developments in transport and communication, the free and rapid flow of information all favored an increase in human mobility over the past two decades. A recent report of the Global Commission on International Migration (2005) showed that from 1970 to 2005 the number of international migrants increased rapidly from 82 million people to 200 million people, counting only those who have lived outside their country for more than one year and including 9.2 million refugees. However, international migrants represent today only 3% of the world’s population. At the beginning of this century there were 56.1 million migrants in Europe (including the European part of the former USSR), compared to approximately 41 million migrants in North America. From 1990 to 2000, immigration accounted for
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Viviana ANDREESCU and Violeta ALEXANDRU JIMS - Volume 1, number 2, 2007 4 89% of population growth in Europe; without immigration, Europe’s population would have declined by 4.4 million people (GCIM 2005). The 27-state EU has now a population of more than 490 million. The EU’s GDP of nearly $14 trillion makes it the world’s largest economic bloc — and a magnet for job-seekers. Based on recent trends, it appears that most European countries will continue to recruit migrants to fill out the labor and skills shortages that are more likely to raise in the near future (Boswell 2005). Over the past decade, some countries have actively recruited at the higher end of the job market and also at the lower end, hiring, usually on a short-term or seasonal basis, unskilled workers in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and in services. The majority of these short-term labor migrants came from Eastern Europe and Africa (Stalker 2002, 161). While since the 1990s, the annual number of asylum and family
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migratorytend - Journal of Identity and Migration Studies...

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