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Cover Page Chemistry Paper 1 (100 Marks): 30 MCQ, 40 marks Short – Questions, 30 marks Structured Questions 1. Kinetic Particle Theory 2. Measurement and Experimental Techniques 3. Purification and Separation 4. Elements, Compounds, Mixtures 5. Atomic Structure 6. Ionic and Covalent Bonding 7. Metallic Bonding 8. Writing Chemical Equations 9. The Mole 10. Chemical Calculations 11. Acids and Bases 12. Salts 13. Oxidation and Reduction 14. The Periodic Table 15. The Atmosphere and Environment
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Pure Chemistry SA2 Overall Revision Notes Chapter 1 Kinetic Particle Theory Solid Liquid Gas Arrangement of the particles Close together in an orderly arrangement Close together in a disorderly arrangement Far apart in a random arrangement. Forces between particles Strong Strong None Movement Vibrations about fixed positions increase as temperature increase. Vibrations and movement throughout the liquid Vibrations and movement anywhere. Energy of the particles Less Energy More Energy Density High (Particles close together) High (Particles close together) Low (Particles are far apart) Energy Changes Kinetic Particle Theory States that all matter is made up of tiny particles that are in constant, random motion 1. Between points A and B, the substance is completely solid. 2. The substance starts melting at Point B. The temperature is called the melting point . 3. Between points B and C, the substance is melting and a mixture of solid and liquid is present. Temperature is constant as heat energy is taken to weaken and break the bonds. 4. The substance has completely melted at point C and became a liquid. 1. Between points A and B, substance is completely liquid. It starts melting at point B which is the freezing / melting point. 2. Between points B and C, the substance is freezing and a mixture of liquid and solid is present. Temperature is constant as heat energy is given out to make bonds between the particles. 3. The substance has completely turned into a solid at C. Sublimation Liquid Gas It occurs because particles at the surface of the solid have enough energy to break away from the solid and escape as a gas and particles of the liquid are too weak to remain in that state. Some examples of substances that sublime include iodine and ammonium chloride. Substances that sublime can change from gaseous state to solid state through condensation. Dry ice is useful as it can keep food cold and change into a gas without leaving liquid behind. Diffusion There are 2 definitions for diffusion: Diffusion is a process in which particles travel from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration . Diffusion is a process whereby particles move freely to fill up any available space . The 2 main factors affecting the rate of diffusion:
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course RANDOM R 101 taught by Professor T.s. during the Fall '11 term at Research College.

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