bmed 3100 L1

bmed 3100 L1 - BME
3100
 Systems
Physiology
...

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Unformatted text preview: BME
3100
 Systems
Physiology
 Fall
2011
 Tu/Thur
9:35‐10:55,
Klauss
2447
 Shannon
Barker,
PhD
([email protected])
 TA:
Adam
Prasanphanich
([email protected])
 Learning
ObjecRves
 1.  Become
familiar
with
physiological
funcRons
of
major
 human
organ
systems
 2.  Understand
the
homeostaRc
processes
and
 integraRon
of
human
organ
systems
 3.  Develop
quanRtaRve
skills
for
analyzing
physiological
 processes
 4.  Develop
ability
to
idenRfy
problems,
and
analyze
and
 interpret
data
from
published
literature.
 Course
DescripRon
 •  Text:

Physiology
by
Linda
Costanzo,
4th
Ed.,
Saunders/ Elsevier,
ISBN:
978‐1‐4160‐6216‐5
 •  Online
course
material:

Lectures
will
be
provided
on
 T‐square.

Problems
for
recitaRon
and
images
from
the
 textbook
can
be
found
on
www.studentconsult.com.
 •  Office
Hours/Ge6ng
Help:

If
you
have
any
general
 content
or
class
related
quesRons
please
FIRST
contact
 your
TA,
Adam
Prasanphanich,
by
appointment
and
 email.


Dr.
Barker’s
office
hours
will
be
from
9
to
10
am
 on
Wednesdays.


 Course
DescripRon
 •  Grading:

 –  Four
noncumulaRve
exams
will
be
given
for
85%
of
your
final
grade.

NO
MAKEUP
EXAMS
WILL
BE
GIVEN
 without
an
official
excuse
from
the
Dean
of
Students.
 –  Four
journal
arRcle
reviews
will
be
assigned
over
the
course
of
the
semester.
You
will
be
given
a
scienRfic
 journal
arRcle
to
read
and
analyze
a
week
before
the
scheduled
review
date.

You
will
also
be
given
a
series
 of
quesRon
(same
quesRons
for
each
journal
arRcle)
to
answer.

These
quesRons
must
be
answered
and
 submiied
to
the
instructor
at
the
beginning
of
the
class
set
aside
to
review
the
arRcle.

We
will
then
review
 these
journal
arRcles
together
in
class
and
you
WILL
be
called
on
randomly
to
answer
some
of
the
 quesRons.

These
journal
arRcle
reviews
will
together
account
for
the
remaining
15%
of
your
final
grade.


 –  A
=
90‐100;
B
=
80‐89;
C
=
70‐79;
D
=
60‐69;
F
=
0‐59
 –  There
will
be
ABSOLUTELY
NO
CURVE.

Your
grade
will
be
your
grade.

Do
not
ask
about
this;
it
is
non‐ negoNable.
 •  AOendance,
Reading
Assignments,
and
RecitaNon
 –  No
homework
other
than
journal
arRcle
reviews
will
be
assigned
for
grading;
however,
students
are
strongly
 encouraged
to
aiend
lectures
and
read
covered
material
prior
to
class.
Poor
grades
in
this
course
correlate
 strongly
with
failure
to
aOend
class
and
read
material.

Students
are
also
strongly
encouraged
to
work
on
 pracRce
problems,
which
you
can
find
at
www.studentconsult.com
(you
must
register
using
the
code
 provided
with
your
textbook).

 –  Exam
reviews
will
be
conducted
providing
students
with
the
opportunity
to
work
through
the
problems
and
 review
for
upcoming
exams.
 Classroom
ERqueie
 •  Be
on
Rme.
If
late,
do
not
let
the
door
slam
and
take
 your
seat
quietly.
 •  Cell
phones,
smart
phones,
laptops,
and
text
 messaging
devices
should
be
silenced.
 •  No
talking
or
whispering
during
lectures.
 •  Laptops
are
permiied
for
note‐taking
provided
it
does
 not
become
a
distracRon
to
the
instructor,
fellow
 students,
or
thelaptop’s
user.
 Systems
Physiology
 •  Physiology:
 –  Study
of
how
living
organisms
work.
 •  Can
be
very
narrow:
specific
molecules
 •  Or
very
broad:
organ
systems
 •  Homeostasis:
 –  Body’s
aiempt
to
maintain
constant
internal
environment
 •  Pathophysiology:
physiology
“gone
wrong”
 •  Much
is
sRll
unknown
 OrganizaRon
of
Body
 •  Cell:
simplest
structural
unit
that
retains
 funcRons
of
life
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Muscle
cells:
force
and
movement
 Nerve
cells:
electrical
signals
 Epithelial
cells:
secrete
and
absorb
ions
 and
molecules
 ConnecRve
Rssue
cells:
support
 structures
 •  Tissue:
Four
general
categories:
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Muscle
 Nerve
 Epithelial
 ConnecRve
 •  Organs
 •  Organ
Systems
 CELLS
 TISSUE
 ORGANS
 ORGAN
SYSTEMS
 Organ
Systems
of
Body
 System
 Major
Organs/Tissue
 FuncNons
 Circulatory
 Heart,
blood
vessels,
blood
 Transport
of
blood
 DigesRve
 Mouth,
salivary
glands,
stomach,
 intesRnes,
etc.
 DigesRon
&
absorpRon
of
nutrients
 and
water,
eliminaRon
of
waste
 Endocrine
 Hormone‐secreRng
organs
(pancreas,
 RegulaRon
of
growth,
metabolism,
 kidneys,
thyroid,
thymus,
etc.)
 electrolyte
balance,
etc.
 Immune
 White
blood
cells,
spleen,
thymus
 Defense
 Integumentary
 Skin
 ProtecRon,
body
temperature
 regulaRon
 LymphaRc
 Lymph
vessels,
lymph
nodes
 RedistribuRon
of
ECF,
immune
 defense
 Musculoskeletal
 Bone,
skeletal
muscle,
etc
 Movements,
support
 Nervous
 Brain,
spinal
cord,
nerves
 CoordinaRon,
learning,
etc
 ReproducRve
 Testes/ovaries,
penis/vagina,
etc
 FerRlizaRon,
pregnancy
 Respiratory
 Lungs,
nose,
trachea,
etc
 Exchange
of
CO2
and
oxygen,
etc
 Urinary
 Kidneys,
bladder,
etc
 ExcreRon
of
salts,
water,
waste
 Body
Fluids
 •  Intracellular
Fluid
(ICF):
2/3
of
body’s
 water
 •  Extracellular
Fluid
(ECF):
1/3
of
 body’s
water
 –  IntersRRal
Fluid
(ISF):
surrounds
cells
 –  Plasma:
circulates
as
extracellular
 component
of
blood
 Cell
Membrane
 Capillary
Wall
 –  60%
of
body
weight
is
water
 –  40%
of
body
weight
is
ICF
 –  20%
of
body
weight
is
ECF
 40%
x
70
kg
=
28
L
water
 IC
Fluid
=
40%
weight
 ISF
=
10
L
 Plasma
=
4L
 •  60:40:20
Rule:
 

 EC
Fluid
=
20%
weight
 Total
Body
Water
=
60%
weight
 ComposiRon
of
Body
Fluids:
Solutes
 •  Solute:
a
substance
dissolved
in
fluid
 •  Units
for
measuring
solute
concentraRons 

 –  Molecular
Weight
(sum
of
atomic
weights
of
all
atoms
in
 molecule)
 •  Ex:
C6H12O6
=
180
 –  Mole
(amount
of
molecule
in
grams
equal
to
its
MW)
 •  Moles
=
weight/molecular
weight;

Molarity:
mol/L
 •  Ex:
180
g
glucose
in
1
L
of
soluRon
=
1
mol/L
 –  Equivalent
(Amount
of
ionized
solute)
 •  (Number
of
moles
of
a
solute)
x
(solute’s
valence)
 •  Ex:
1
mmol/L
Ca2+
=
2
mEq/L
 ComposiRon
of
Body
Fluids:
Solutes
 •  Units
for
measuring
solute
concentraRons:
 –  Osmoles
(number
of
parRcles
into
which
a
soluRon
 dissociates)
 •  Osmolarity:
conc.
of
parRcles
in
soluRon
(Osm/L)
 •  If
solute
does
not
dissociate:
Osmolarity
=
Molarity
 •  Ex:
1
mmol/L
NaCl
=
2mOsm/L
 –  pH:
free
[H+]
 •  pH
=
‐log10[H+]
 –  [H+]
in
body
fluids:
very
low
 –  (‐):
pH
decreases
as
[H+]
increases
 –  Ex:
pH
of
a
soluRon
with
[H+]
of
10(‐7)
mol/L
=
7
 ComposiRon
of
Body
Fluids
 •  Differences
are
important
 for
every
physiological
 funcRon:
 –  Ex:
resRng
membrane
 potenRal
of
nerve
and
 muscle
 –  Ex:
AcRon
potenRal
in
 excitable
cells
 –  AdsorpRon
of
essenRal
 nutrients
 Substance/Units
 ECF
 ICF
 Na+
(mEq/L)
 140
 14
 K+
(mEq/L)
 4
 120
 Ca2+
(mEq/L)
 2.5
 1
x
10‐4
 Cl‐
(mEq/L)
 105
 10
 HCO3‐
(mEq/L)
 24
 10
 pH
 7.4
 7.1
 Osmolarity
(mOsm/L)
 290
 290
 Cell
Physiology
 •  Introduces
common
set
of
physiological
principles
 •  What
we
will
discuss:
 1.  Cell
membrane
properRes
 2.  CreaRon
and
maintenance
of
solute
concentraRon
differences
by
 transport
mechanisms
 3.  Electrical
potenRal
differences
across
cell
membranes 4.  GeneraRon
of
acRon
potenRals
 5.  Transmission
of
informaRon
between
cells
across
synapses
 6.  The
coupling
of
acRon
potenRals
to
contracRon
in
muscle
cells
 

 Cell
membranes
 •  FuncRons
 –  SelecRve
barrier
 –  Detects
chemical
signals
 –  Anchors
cells
to
adjacent
cells
and
 ECM
 •  Structure
(Phospholipids):
 •  Lipid
bilayer
 •  Amphipathic
phospholipids
 –  Glycerol
head
is
hydrophilic/ charged
 –  FA
tails
are
hydrophobic/ nonpolar
 •  No
chemical
bonds

fluidity
 Cell
Membranes
 •  Structure
(fluid‐mosaic
 model):
 1.  Integral
membrane
proteins
 •  •  •  Closely
associated
 Amphipathic
 Transmembrane
proteins
 –  –  –  –  Ligand‐binding
Rs
 Transport
proteins
 Ion
channels
 Pores
 2.  Peripheral
membrane
 proteins
 •  Located
at
membrane
surface
 (not
amphipathic,
not
 embedded)
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course BME 3100 taught by Professor Barker during the Fall '11 term at Georgia Tech.

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