HIST110 Notes

HIST110 Notes - HIST 110 The Ancient World Lecture Notes...

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HIST 110 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Egypt Pharaoh is a physical incorporation of natural forces of God o God of reproductive power of the Nile Valley o Theology justified his autocratic dictatorship Symbolized in the pyramids (had little practical use, only theological) Egyptians are inventers of architectural elegance Under Pharaoh, economic exploitation of the Nile valley is possible o Building of pyramids, however, shows the possibilities under such dictatorships (massive slave labor) o Cities of unmatched wealth and size arise Thebes (Egypt) – 250,000 people Athens – 1/7 the size with half the population Philadelphia in 1776 would be a simple neighborhood in Egypt Introduction of metal tools o Bronze changes to iron Sophisticated writing (from Mesopotamia), laws, taxation, commerce, system of irrigation and flood control by manual labor, supported entire wealth of Egypt River Valley Civilizations Achievements: o Large scale agriculture techniques o Complex government o Calendars, mathematics, astronomy, writing o Large cities develop o Survival and prosperity only insured by keeping things as they were (artificial system) Increasingly self absorbed o Conservative societies o Eventually, history stops (development) o Little room for individual expression State control of the economy leads to state control of individual expression (art, science, etc.) No word in Egyptian for concept of Freedom System of agriculture implies planning o Leads to a hierarchy Individual thinkers discouraged because they detract from the conservative economic system o Disobeying of the Pharaoh and therefore God o Even rulers and priests were imprisoned by ritual and precedent
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Western Civilization Based on Individual Achievement Classical period (midway point in history between Egypt/Mesopotamia and Modern times) Development of Greek City-States o 200 Separate small states o Localities separated by terrain o Plentiful rainfall Kings in Greece o Leader in war, Chief Judge, Chief Priest o Between 800-650 BCE Kings disappear o Always dependent on a council of clan leaders Become chief organ of government all across Greece Republics o Time limits on chief operating officer o Council of 50-100 men to cumbersome for day to day affairs o Council creates idea of public officials 3 public officials fulfill 3 tasks of kings Serve only for a single year (Magistrates) o Councils meet once a year to give approval of choices o Man-made system (changed by men, and could continue to be changed) Revolution in military tactics o Spring harvest – attack neighbors Go to enemies fields to fight or burn their crops o Aristocratic champions are defenders of states Throw spears (6ft) o After 700 BC greater availability of iron Cost of armor goes down (top 1/3 of population can afford armor) Mass infantry becomes new tactical battle Greek hoplite becomes new soldier Tank of hoplites = phalanx
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course HIST 110 taught by Professor Eckstein during the Fall '10 term at Maryland.

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HIST110 Notes - HIST 110 The Ancient World Lecture Notes...

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