224armies - Duke of Marlborough Stopped France with Louis...

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Duke of Marlborough – Stopped France with Louis XIV, separated his army, attacked flanks, Blenhiem, English CHANGES: Reasons Why Fighting, Weapons, Types of Armies, Tactics, Finances, Resources, Feudal, Medieval Stipendiary, Aggregate Contract, State Commissioned, Popular Conscript, Charles VIII – How it all began (Medieval Stipendiary) v. Feudal Cordoba, Charles V (Spain, Austria, France all develop, including development of trace italienne, siege warfare) – Changes lead to Spanish Army of Flanders, New Model Armies (Aggregate Contract), State Commission – Louis XIV, Frederick the Great, Popular Conscript – French Revolutionary, Napoleon LONG ESSAY Army Development from 1495-1815 A. Late feudal Army 1. Dominated by the knight and his unit (lance – about 6 people) 2. Cohesive shock infantry (Swiss and Landscknechte) 3. Crossbowmen, longbow men, and arquebus units 4. Ill-organized shock infantry with halberds and broad swords 5. Artillery a. Bombards which eventually gave way to newer bronze siege guns with trunnions and supported by carriages b. Every 1000lbs of gun required two oxen c. Limited the mobility of artillery 6. 3 Parts to a medieval army a. Vanguard, main body, rearguard 7. A peacetime King had a small professional army for protection a. At wartime this was expanded into an aggregate contract army b. Contained mercenaries and other recruited men 8. Four major components a. Primacy of mounted and non-mounted shock soldiers b. Masses of archers and lesser infantry c. Shift in the ability to wage offensive wars d. King’s army in a war is never adequate, bulk of men come when they are required, such as knights B. French Army of 1495 1. The French had a combined armed force of heavy cavalry and heavy infantry a. About 16,000 – 20,000 soldiers b. This was the largest army in France in 600 years 2. All companies of the army were regularly inspected by the constable of France a. Contributed to a greater uniformity 3. Had 2 different types of knights and lance units
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a. Professional knights were the most skilled with lance units of six supporting infantry b. Volunteer knights lances only contained 6 or 3 supporters 4. There was little light cavalry in the army 5. 3 regiments of Swiss mercenaries made up the heavy cavalry a. 8000 men b. Supported by light infantry of missile, arquebus, and pikes 6. Advanced bronze artillery that fired iron ammunition I. Spanish Military Reform A. Cordoba realizes his army is no match for French 1. Decides to build a new army a. Realizes he can successfully attack light garrisons in southern Italy b. Utilizes basic guerrilla tactics 2. Builds a force much different than before a. Recruited German and Italian arquebus’ 3. Used the arquebus to first engage, pike men as shock next, and sword and buckler infantry to move through the pikes B. Usefulness 1. Spanish army had good lower level leadership a. Poor aristocracy were not ashamed to fight with infantry b. Did not expect to be mounted knights 2. By 1498 the French were overextended and forced to withdraw
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course HIST 224 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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224armies - Duke of Marlborough Stopped France with Louis...

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