224Lecture Notes

224Lecture Notes - H IST224 Lecture 3: Pre-Modern Military...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: H IST224 Lecture 3: Pre-Modern Military History Terms: Feu/Fieu Vassal Fief Falkirk (1298) Duplin Moor (1332) Crecy (1346) Poitiers (1356) Agincourt (1415) Margarten (1315) Economics of Knight Helmet = 6 cows Mail = 12 cows Sword/Scabbard = 7 cows Leg Groins = 6 cows Lance/Shield = 2 cows Battle Stead = 12 cows I. History A. Greeks + Romans 1. Well developed, standing armies 2. Centralized government B. Old military institutions collapsed 1. Fall of Roman Empire 2. Loss of knowledge 3. Loss of centralization I I. Feudalism A. Structure 1. King grants fiefs (property to a number of armed men) 2. Then granted to vassals (aristocrats) a. Continue granting land to lesser aristocrats, and so forth 1 3. Land granted in return for military service B. Obligations 1. Fief holders are skilled fighting men 2. Vassal must serve in defense (obligation) 3. In offense, limited to no more than 40 days service a. Services not necessarily outside kingdom 4. Complications: obligations between fiefs a. System not based on cash/currency C. Economics 1. Knights on a manor a. 3 cows = 1 mare b. 15 mares equipped one knight c. Equal to all domestic animals of a typical manor 2. Low depreciation value for knight a. Armor used for a long time D. Lord/Castle and Knights 1. Fortification is a residence for the lord a. A few men could withhold an attack b. Reinforces propensity to defensiveness 2. Defensive system a. Knight used as short range defense b. Efficient: 1 knight could kill 10 attackers 3. Knights often captured and ransomed, not killed a. Dominate battlefield b. Require the support of infantry, however, for maximum effectiveness c. Knight + infantry = lance (combat unit), could be augmented by loose infantry 4. Melee/Loose order combat a. Lower skilled individuals grouped with higher skilled individuals b. Advance slowly (shock effect of appearance) c. If utilizing archers, then quickly attack to overrun infantry 5. Battles (elements/formations) are t ripartite a. Vanguard, main body, rearguard b. Lack of military discipline and chain of command 2 c. Action governed by consent and honor E. Feudalism Problems/Efforts 1. How to create and sustain enough knights to provide security 2. Various military options a. Fighting peasant revolt b. Foreign raiders c. Fighting between feuds/vassals F. Crusades 1. Rare national effort 2. Charlemagne had max 10,000 troops (small amount) 3. Lack of roads for convenient moving and travel 4. Inefficient a. Customary time limit 40 days not nearly enough time for campaigning b. Personal honor was greater concern then military requirements c. Ignorance of geography made engagement difficult (battles must be arranged) 5. Feudal military system was not meant for large scale warfare I I I. New Military forms (Missile) A. Missile Infantry 1. Short bow a. Light, weak impact b. Required skill c. Good for hunting and fighting unarmored soldiers 2. Cross Bow a. Short range, strong impact b. Crank system of draw, mechanized partly c. Relatively complicated...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course HIST 224 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

Page1 / 66

224Lecture Notes - H IST224 Lecture 3: Pre-Modern Military...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online