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Dec 6 immigration

Dec 6 immigration - Immigration 1 Why to individuals...

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Immigration 1
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Why to individuals migrate out of home country? Evolution of US population and immigration policy How do immigrants perform in host country? Impact of immigrants on natives? Best immigration policy for host country? 2
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Decision to migrate Rural to urban migration International migration Why do people move? Neoclassical theory Individual moves if expected wages are higher than staying New economics theory Decision is at the household level, rather than the individual level (remittances) Method to diversify risk, access to capital 3
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Other factors Network / social capital Previous migrants make it easier (lower the cost) of migrating, increasing the benefits Relative position / deprivation Improving social position is a major goal of migration 4
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Evidence Stark and Taylor (1989, 1991) Relative depravation in home village increases migration from Mexico to U.S. Absolute depravation increases migration to the U.S. Davis and Winters (2001) Migrant networks (those already established in U.S.) matter Male networks matter for females migrating Female networks influence destination 5
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Policy implications In sending countries Increasing average income and equality of distribution is important In destination countries Previous entries affect current and future flows 6
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Immigrants are not as large a share of the total population as once were 7 Source: Borjas (1994)
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But may eventually surpass previous high 8
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U.S. Immigration Policy 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended immigration of Chinese immigrants for 60 years 1907 “gentleman’s agreement” with Japan T. Roosevelt - California would desegregate Japanese students from their schools, Japan would stop emigration of its citizens 1917 Asian Indian Exclusion 1921 & 1924 Quota Laws Restricted flow from Eastern Europe Visas allocated by national origin of current population (majority UK and Germany) 9
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U.S. Immigration Policy 1929 National Origins Act limited annual quota of 150,000 immigrants, only 30
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