Discrimination Notes

Discrimination Notes - Gender Discrimination Job Levels Why...

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Gender Discrimination – Job Levels Why? - Gender differences in preferences o To manage/supervise? What are the different responsibilities/tradeoffs? o Less willing to compete? - Gender differences in ability o To negotiate/to manage? - Different perceptions of women’s actions? o Leads to discriminatory behavior in promotion and raise negotiations Niederle and Vesterlund - Men are more likely to compete than women - Men and women were equally skilled Experiment: men and women complete 4 tasks 1) solve addition problems over 5 minutes, receive $.5/correct answer 2) solve addition problems over 5 minutes, best of 4 gets $2/correct answer 3) do the same, but decide whether get paid as in 1 or 2 4) decide to submit work from 1 to be paid as either 1 or 2 Despite the equal outcomes, men are twice as likely to enter the competition in task 3 - 35% of women and 73% of men select the tournament - Performance in tasks 1 and 2 do not explain decision to enter the tournament, but gender is significant in a probit regression - Performance in task 3 also does not predict choice of compensation Women are less likely to enter a tournament where they have to perform - Women and men have different preferences for competing
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- Even though they may be just as successful, women are less likely to enter a competitive environment, whereas men are overconfident and more likely to enter - Implications for progression in career as well as earnings Negotiating pay raises and promotions - Niederle and Vesterlund find evidence that women like competing less than men o Do differences in treatment in a competitive environment foster this attitude? - Women perceived as pushy, aggressive, less attractive when asking for raises/promotion - At job entry, women less likely to negotiate salary up than man Recommendations for Women Negotiating a Pay Raise (Bertrand) - Proactive, but look for “best time” - Use more nuance language - Information equals the field o Also standardization for pay and promotion o Get information about what men make - Explain yourself, focus on the relationship o When negotiating with men or women - Don’t talk directly about yourself, but why all benefit - Consider how the promotion will affect homelife Equal Pay Act, 1963 - same wages to men and women who do substantially equal work, with equal skill, effort and responsibility, under same conditions Title VII of Civil Rights Act, 1964 - Prohibits discrimination in employment (including hiring, firing, training, promotions, wages, fringe, benefits) on basis of race, religion, national origin and sex o Firms with 15 or more workers, EEOC enforces Executive Order 11246, 1965, 1967
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- bars discrimination in employment by those with federal contracts and subcontracts o Requires affirmative action for workers disadvantaged by pas discrimination Look for underrepresentation-> create goals and time tables Affirmative Action in Employment - Holzer and Neumark study compares firms that use affirmative action to firms that do not use it - Firms that use affirmative action in hiring (42%) or recruiting (55%) o
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