Education - Education 1 Education and poverty 25 23.6 20 in poverty 15 11.5 7.8 10 3.7 5 0 Less than High School High School or Equivalent Some

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Education 1
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Education and poverty 2 23.6 11.5 7.8 3.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 Less than High School High School or Equivalent Some College, Associate's Degree Bachelor's Degree or Higher % in poverty
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Why does education earn higher wages? Human capital theory Sorting or signaling theory 3
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Why do we care why? implications for: how schools operate how they teach policy reforms to improve school quality E.g. testing policies may give a better indication of human capital development than just a diploma or degree 4
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Preschool Primary and Secondary education Higher education 5
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Preschool programs for low-income children Head Start Perry and Abecedarian preschool education programs Universal preschool 6
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7 Source: Heckman, 2006.
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Purpose of preschool programs Increase school readiness Cognitive skill component Increasing IQ Noncognitive skill component Teaching motivation, self-control & time preference as important and cognitive skills 8
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Examples Abecedarian Program Perry Preschool Program Head Start 9
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Abecedarian Project 111 disadvantaged children born between 1972-1977. Randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Treatment group in early childhood program that was year round full-day intervention through age 8 Follow-up through age 21 10
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Perry Preschool Project Intensive preschool program for 58 disadvantaged black children. daily 2.5 hour class session 90 minute home visit by teacher on weekday afternoons 30 weeks Teachers had Masters degrees and training in child development Control group of 65 no intervention. Ypsilanti, MI between 1962-1967 Treatment and control group followed up through age 40 11
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Head Start Nationally available educational enrichment program for poor preschool children (most children are 3-5 years old). Began in 1965 as part of President Johnson’s War on Poverty. Head Start programs must enroll 90% of their students from families with income less than the poverty line. Programs must provide more than just day care Must have educational, social skill, and basic knowledge components. 12
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Head Start Served just over 900,000 children with a budget of $6.9 billion in 2007. Not the same quality intervention as Perry or Abecederian (funding per child is much lower). But better quality than other day care for low income children. 13
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Effects of Head Start Studies have shown a gain in IQ, but. .. …one criticism is that these gains “fade out” over time. Could be due to Head Start children attending poorer quality schools later. 14
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Effects of Perry program on IQ Also shows increases in IQ, but then it fades away. But researchers have been following Perry
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course ECON 375 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Maryland.

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Education - Education 1 Education and poverty 25 23.6 20 in poverty 15 11.5 7.8 10 3.7 5 0 Less than High School High School or Equivalent Some

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