chapter2 - Chapter2 MotioninOneDimension Dynamics

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Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension
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Dynamics The branch of physics involving the  motion of an object and the relationship  between that motion and other physics  concepts Kinematics  is a part of dynamics In kinematics, you are interested in the  description  of motion Not  concerned with the cause of the  motion
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Quantities in Motion Any motion involves three concepts Displacement Velocity Acceleration These concepts can be used to study  objects in motion
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Brief History of Motion Sumaria and Egypt Mainly motion of heavenly bodies Greeks Also to a understand the motion of  heavenly bodies Systematic and detailed studies Geocentric model
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“Modern” Ideas of Motion Copernicus Developed the heliocentric system Galileo Made astronomical observations with a  telescope Experimental evidence for description of  motion Quantitative study of motion
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Position Defined in terms of a  frame of  reference A choice of coordinate axes  Defines a starting point for measuring  the  motion Or any other quantity One dimensional, so generally the x- or y- axis
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Displacement Defined as the  change in position   f stands for final and i stands for initial Units are meters (m) in SI f i x x x ∆ ≡ -
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Displacement Examples From A to B x i  = 30 m x f  = 52 m x = 22 m The displacement is positive,  indicating the motion was in the  positive x direction From C to F x i  = 38 m x f  = -53 m x = -91 m The displacement is negative,  indicating the motion was in the  negative x direction
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Displacement, Graphical
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Vector and Scalar Quantities Vector quantities need both magnitude  (size) and direction to completely  describe them Generally denoted by boldfaced type and  an arrow over the letter + or – sign is sufficient for this chapter Scalar quantities are completely  described by magnitude only
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Displacement Isn’t Distance The displacement of an object is not the  same as the distance it travels Example: Throw a ball straight up and then  catch it at the same point you released it The distance is twice the height The displacement is zero 
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Speed The  average speed  of an object is defined as  the total distance traveled divided by the total  time elapsed Speed is a scalar quantity = = total distance Average speed total time d v t
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Speed, cont Average speed totally ignores any 
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course PHY 2053 taught by Professor Buchler during the Spring '06 term at University of Florida.

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chapter2 - Chapter2 MotioninOneDimension Dynamics

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