Development of Sociological Theory Cont

Development of Sociological Theory Cont - 20:47

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20:47 Development of Sociological Theory Cont. . Part of being human to speculate about our natural and social  environment, to consider our experiences and try to explain them Earliest roots can be traced to middle eastern culture (4-8,000 )years  before the Christian era, in places like what is today Iraq, where  people studied writing and math and religion and politics etc. Greek thought:  (400 BC) “individual” they brought middle eastern  thought into their culture, about individual rights, democracy,  ethics/morality Socrates, Plato, Aristotle were writing about abstract reason and  sensory knowledge…  Roman Culture:  (300 BC- 400 AD?) spread Greek ideas thru’  Roman empire Both had a fairly sophisticated view of the world before the dark ages  which were from the 5 th  c. to the 13 th  c. plagued by conflict and  poverty  Judea-Christian Ethics  in the middle ages (dark ages, age of faith),  emphasized meekness , considered the evil of mankind to be  inherent, no talk of individuality, religious ideas, god given moral  code, often people were subject to the aristocrats and the clergy,  people lived agricultural rural lifestyles, people were moving around  or moving up in social class, this was a period where there were few  secular innovations…people however, still reasoned and used their  experiences to understand the world, but religious thought was  dominant  European Renaissance: (15 th  c. ->) 
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the rebirth of new art, trade, ideas, politics, etc… this was a period  when some of the leading intellectuals began to take an interest in  classical Greek ideas and in secular humanism: humans and their  capabilities are the main concern and the world weren’t as consumed  with the word of God, emphasized critical thinking, discovery, math,  and the importance of the individual as opposed to the community  and the group Combining abstract thought with empirical knowledge came about  during this time eventually leading to the scientific method Francis Bacon’s idea for scientific study: abstract reason tested by  (falsified)  empiricism -> generalizable principles -> progress    “conceptualization of the nature of the universe should always be 
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 313 taught by Professor Shruti during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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Development of Sociological Theory Cont - 20:47

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