Lecture-02

Lecture-02 - Lecture 2: Arguments, Statements, and...

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Lecture 2: Arguments, Statements, and Recursion Arguments Arguments are verbal, written, propositional, representations of episodes of reasoning Reasoning is determining what follows from facts or assumptions An argument: A set of statements such that one (conclusion) is taken to follow from the others (premises) 1. Either the pizza in my hand is a cheese pizza or the pizza in my hand is a pepperoni pizza. 2. The pizza in my hand is not a pepperoni pizza. 3. Therefore, the pizza in my hand is a cheese pizza. Will always be exactly 1 conclusion Can be any number of premises Varieties of arguments Two kinds of argument 1. Deductive - Premises are taken to provide complete, watertight support for the conclusion (may or may not be successful) 2. Inductive - Premises are taken to provide probable support for the conclusion, but not watertight support (may or may not be successful) Example of deductive argument 1. If I file my taxes I will get a refund. 2. I will file my taxes. 3. I will get a refund.
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deductive argument 1. If John wins Lotto, then John will go to Hawaii. 2. John went to Hawaii. 3. John won Lotto. Example of inductive argument 1. Southpark has always been on Wednesday at 10 pm. 2. It is now Wednesday at 10 pm. 3. Therefore, Southpark is [probably] on now. Example of inductive argument 1. The last time I watched Southpark, the first commercial was for Old Navy. 2. The first commercial on tonight’s episode of Southpark will [probably] be for Old Navy. Difference between deductive and inductive arguments is not a matter of how good the arguments are. There are good and bad inductive arguments, and good and bad deductive arguments. There are two distinct measures of an argument’s goodness: 1. The ‘inferential relationship’ between the premises and the conclusion 2. The truth of the premises 1. The ‘inferential relationship’ between the premises and the conclusion If the premises were true, would the conclusion necessarily (deductive), or probably (inductive), be true? Note: This can be assessed even if
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2011 for the course PHIL 10 taught by Professor Churchland during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture-02 - Lecture 2: Arguments, Statements, and...

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