04-COGS17-Psychopharmacology-Part2a

04-COGS17-Psychopharmacology-Part2a - Acetylcholine...

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10/23/2009 1 Acetylcholine Mary ET Boyle, Ph.D. Cognitive Science • Act on neurons in their own immediate vicinity, generally at the synapse Neurotransmitters Neurohormones • Are chemical messengers that act on neurons somewhat farther away by diffusing away from their site of release. • Are capable of producing effects at target cells quite distant from their site of release. N h ft t l i th bl d l Neuromodulators Neurohormones often travel in the blood supply to reach their final targets.
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10/23/2009 2 Sir Henry Dale 1875 1968 Dale’s Principle or (Dale’s Law) The same chemical transmitter is released from all the synaptic terminals of a neuron. Neurotransmitter Characteristics • Synthesized within the neuron. • Must have an effect. • Duplicate it experimentally. • A mechanism that ends the interaction.
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10/23/2009 3 Amino acids GABA Glutamate 6 others Catecholamines: Dopamine Small Molecule Transmitters Amines (Monoamines) Norepinephrine Epinephrine Indolamines: Serotonin Melatonin Acetylcholine (ACh) ATP and its byproducts Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Skeletal (somatic) voluntary muscle control Autonomic smooth muscles d l d Brain Spinal Cord and glands
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10/23/2009 4 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight Rest and Digest Acetylcholine (ACh) C 7 H 16 NO 2
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10/23/2009 5 Otto Loewi 1921 Demonstrated that synaptic signaling was chemical Acetylcholine Cholinergic Neurons Neurons that use Acetylcholine as their t itt neurotransmitter.
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10/23/2009 6 acetyl-CoA choline ChAT ChAT CoA ACh Coenzyme A Coenzyme A Acetate ion Choline acetyltransferase ChAT
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