COGS17-Control of Movement

COGS17-Control of Movement - 11/13/2009 The Neurological...

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11/13/2009 1 The Neurological Control of Movement Mary ET Boyle, Ph.D. Department of Cognitive Science UCSD Levels of Control of Movement • A change in the place or position of the body or a body part. Movement • When neurological control of movement is working correctly we can … do anything! • If not, movement disorders such as myasthenia gravis, movement apraxia, ALS, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease.
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11/13/2009 2 Levels of Control of Movement : Simple to Complex The simplest movements are reflexive reactions withdrawing your hand after touching a hot stove or blinking when something more complex than reflexes, but less complex than other skills maintaining posture, sitting, standing, walking, and eye movement withdrawing your hand after touching a hot stove or blinking when something gets in your eye complex movements can be learned playing the violin, riding a bike, and operating exercise equipment
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11/13/2009 3 Stimulation of Movement Most basic level of control is the spinal cord (e.g., spinal reflexes, such as the withdrawal reflex, are solely controlled by the spinal cord). Next level involves brain stem structures in the hindbrain and midbrain (e.g., visual pursuit of a light stimulus).
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11/13/2009 4 Highest level of control involves the cerebral cortex and structures such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the primary and secondary motor cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Basal Ganglia (main components: striatum, pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus) I nfluences movement by smoothing out and refining it (gets rid of extraneous movement and acts to ensure that the selected movement occurs with sufficient, but not excessive, force); also responsible for muscle tone and postural adjustments. The corpus striatum and Huntington’s disease – leads to substantial enlargement of the lateral ventricles
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11/13/2009 5 Cerebellum Plays a central role in translating uncoordinated movements into a skilled action; receives feedback from sensory receptors that monitor movement and brain stem structures that initiate movement.
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11/13/2009 6 Three types of muscle tissue in the body:
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11/13/2009 7
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11/13/2009 8 extension Contraction of triceps muscle (extensor) flexion Contraction of the biceps muscle (flexor) movement away from the body brings the extended limb back toward the body Skeletal muscle Muscle fibers Myofibrils Myofilaments Myosin (thick filaments) Actin (thin filaments)
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11/13/2009 9 Neural Control of Muscle Contraction The motor neurons of the peripheral nervous system control the system control the skeletal muscles. The cell bodies of motor neurons are located in the gray matter of the ventral horn of the spinal cord and in different parts of the brain stem.
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11/13/2009 10
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11/13/2009 11 Motor Neurons: Transmission of a Neural Impulse Transmission of a neural impulse from motor neuron to muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction—similar to th t i i f l i l b t the transmission of neural impulses between neurons Motor neuron releases ACh into the synaptic cleft.
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COGS17-Control of Movement - 11/13/2009 The Neurological...

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