Learning and Memory

Learning and Memory - 11/29/2009 Learning A long term...

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11/29/2009 1 The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Mary ET Boyle, Ph.D. Department of Cognitive Science UCSD •L e a rn in g long term change in behavior A long term change in behavior as a function of experiences. •M emo r y – The capacity to retain and ti p t p i retrieve past experiences.
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11/29/2009 2 Types of Learning •H ab i tu a t ion – A decrease in response following repeated exposure to a non-threatening • Sensitization stimulus. – An increase in reactivity to a stimulus following exposure to an intense event. Types of Learning: Pavlovian Conditioning • Type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex response until the neutral stimulus elicits the reflex response by itself.
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11/29/2009 3 Types of Learning: Pavlovian Conditioning Types of Learning: Operant Conditioning • Learning how to behave to obtain reinforcement
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11/29/2009 4 Types of Learning: Operant Conditioning Reinforcers • activities that increase the frequency of the behavior i h Punishers • activities that decrease the frequency of the behavior
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11/29/2009 5 Atkinson-Shiffrin model Baddeley’s rehearsal systems approach addeley gued that memories go Baddeley argued that memories go directly from the sensory register to long-term storage. November 2001 • American Psychologist
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11/29/2009 6 Working Memory: A Modern Advance Working memory—A system that permits the temporary storage and manipulation of information required for tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning. Dual task paradigm Baddeley Memorize arrangements of pieces on a chessboard while: Softly counting from 1 to 10 Phonological To tap a series of keys in a spatial pattern Visuospatial roduce a new random letter every Produce a new random letter every second Decision-making
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11/29/2009 7 Dual task paradigm Counting: no effect Tapping keys: impaired recall Producing letters: impaired recall Craik and Lockhart he theory that memories differ in The theory that memories differ in the extent to which they have been processed. November 2001 • American Psychologist
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11/29/2009 8 Types of Memories: Endel Tulving 1972 • Episodic memory—The memory of temporally related events experienced at a particular time and place. • For example, “What were you doing on your birthday?” According to Tulving, animals like his cat have no episodic memory so while they may know many things, they do not remember past experiences the way we do. They just know about them. Drawing by Ruth Tulving • Semantic memory—The memory of knowledge concerning the use of language and the rules, formulas, or algorithms for the development of concepts or solutions to problems. • For example, “How do you speak Japanese?
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11/29/2009 9 • Procedural memory (nondeclarative memory) ill th f Skill memory, or the memory of highly practiced behavior. These memories may OPU!CF!BDDFTTJCMF!UP! DPOTDJPVT!BXBSFOFTT /!
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11/29/2009 10 eclarative emory actual • Declarative memory—Factual memory, or the memory of specific events. We are aware of declarative memories .
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Learning and Memory - 11/29/2009 Learning A long term...

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