17Su11Lec2a

17Su11Lec2a - Cogs17 Lecture 2 Neurobiology of Cognition...

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Cogs17 Neurobiology of Cognition SS1 2011 Lecture 2 Most cells in the body - including those in the Nervous System - share many basic features, including. .. Soma = Cell body Cytoplasm = Fluid inside cell Extracellular Fluid = Fluid outside cell Membrane - Lipids (fat molecules) w/hydrophobic cilia form double layered wall, 8nm thick - Permeable to H2O, O2, CO2, some fats; Generally impermeable to charged ions & larger molecules Ribosomes - Site of Protein Production - Proteins serve many functions (structure, transport, metabolism, membrane gates, etc) - DNA sends “messenger RNA” from Nucleus, mRNA attaches to Ribosomes, instructs protein production Mitochondria - Produce ATP (Adenosine triphosphate ) whose breakdown frees energy to power cell functions - Tend to cluster where “active” (energy-requiring) processes occur Glial Cells – The non-neural cells of Nervous System; Many functions, but do NOT participate in Info Transfer - “Glia” = “Glue”, hold the NS together, i.e. physically and chemically buffer and support the Neurons -e.g. Astrocytes – Provide nutrients to Neurons, recycle neurotransmitters, remove waste, etc. - e.g. Microglia - Proliferate in areas of brain damage, remove toxic materials - e.g. Myelination - whole Schwann Cells wrap around axon in PNS , arms of an Oligodendrocyte in CNS - e.g. Ependymal Cells – Line Ventricles, secrete Cerebral Spinal Fluid, beat cilia to circulate fluid -e.g. Radial Glia - Guide migration and growth of Neurons during development (see below) - Much smaller than most neurons (average 1/10), much more numerous (10X), so ~ 50% of brain by weight - Unlike most Neurons, many Glial cells can regenerate (Runaway regeneration = “Glioma” brain tumor ) Neurons - Cells that are specialized for Information Transfer via modified 1) Processes and 2) Membrane 1) Processes = Elongated structures projecting from the “Soma” or cell body = Dendrites and Axon Dendrites - Site of reception of incoming message - From Greek “Dendron” = Tree, Usually many tapering, dividing branches, sometimes w/extra Spines - Receptor Sites along surface interact w/molecules of Neurotransmitter (NT) from other Neurons - Often have Ribosomes (for protein production, can be important for processing incoming message) Axon - Site of release of outgoing message - Each Neuron has,
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17Su11Lec2a - Cogs17 Lecture 2 Neurobiology of Cognition...

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