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17Su11Lec9 - COGS 17 Neurobiology of Cognition Summer 2011...

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COGS 17 * Neurobiology of Cognition * Summer 2011 Lecture 9: Emotion Theories of Emotion Emotion is hard to study and even to define... James-Lange Theory (1880s) …is the label we give after-the-fact to autonomic arousal and associated behavior - i.e. Our subjective “feelings” are an interpretation we make of our body’s reaction to stimuli Cannon-Bard Theory (1930s) Once threat perceived, visceral & subjective experience of emotion is simultaneous - Via perceptual input via Thalamus to brain & activation of the ANS (for somatic responses) - Updated to include Papez Circuit = Limbic System, responsible for expression & experience of emotion Schacter-Singer Theory (1980s) …is the interaction between cognitive appraisal and autonomic/limbic activity - Physiology determines how strong emotion is, but ID’ing emotion depends on a cognitive appraisal of situ - Feedback between variety of brain regions involved (e.g. Prefrontal Cortex, Amygdala, Hypothalamus, etc!) Behavioral and neurological data support aspects of all of these: - e.g. Subjects given arousing drug (e.g. amphetamine) - or placebo - and shown scary, funny, or sad images - Aroused subjects all reported stronger emotion, but type reported varied with stimuli - e.g. Direct subjects to make specific changes in facial muscles (e.g. Raise brows, pull them together, raise upper eyelids, tighten lower eyelids, stretch lips horizontally) w/o mentioning an emotion - When asked, subjects reported “feeling” appropriate emotio n (e.g. Above expression => fear) - Expressions also produced changes in heart-rate, skin temp, etc. (e.g. Fear: heart up, temp down) - e.g. Subjects hold pen-in-teeth vs. pen-in-lips while judging comics; Rate them funnier if teeth exposed COMPLEX! Emotion plays role in all evaluative (discrimination, motivation, learning) & communicative processes - May depend in part on learned associations, but basic emotional expressions mimicked by newborn humans - So, from its inception, emotional expression is shaped by social interaction - PLUS: Facial expressions of basic emotions are similar across cultures , although “display rules” vary Many brain areas are implicated in the generation and control of emotional behavior… - Including array of structures of Limbic System
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