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13Lecture NotesIntroductionMill

13Lecture NotesIntroductionMill -...

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"#ilosop#) *+ ,e.ture 2otes3 4ntrodu.tion to Mill8s Utilitarianism Re.ap; So =ar >e #ave distinguis#ed t#ree vie>s aAout t#e nature o= et#i.al .laiBsC Dt#i.al .laiBs are .laiBs aAout #o> >e oug#t to live, >#at a.tions >e s#ould .#oose, >#at .#ara.ter >e s#ould developC Dt#i.al .laiBs in.lude .laiBs aAout >#at is good and .#oi.e>ort#) in #uBan li=e as >ell as .laiBs aAout >#at is prudent to do and >#at is Borall) rig#t FperBissiAle or reGuiredH to doC DIaBple o= an et#i.al .laiB; JAortion is Borall) >rongC OALe.tivisBMrationalisBC Dt#i.al .laiBs BaNe genuine assertions, .apaAle o= Aeing true or =alseC SoBe signi=i.ant et#i.al .laiBs are trueC SuALe.tivisBC Dt#i.al .laiBs do not BaNe genuine assertions, .apaAle o= Aeing true or =alseC 4nstead t#e) eIpress t#e eBotions or attitudes or .oBBitBents o= t#e speaNerC J..ording to t#e suALe.tivist, OJAortion is >rongP Beans roug#l) Boo on abortion! OJAortion is Borall) rig#tP Beans roug#l) Yeah for Abortion! Ma.Nie8s Drror Q#eor)C R#en >e use et#i.al language, >e .oBBit ourselves to BaNing genuine assertionsC Sut >#en >e do t#is, >e are s)steBati.all) in errorC 2o et#i.al .laiBs a.tuall) su..eed in BaNing genuine assertions t#at .ould Ae true or =alseC Our Boral and et#i.al language as ordinaril) understood A) .oBpetent speaNers eBAodies a Aig .on=usionC MillC 4n terBs o= t#e t#reeT>a) .on=li.t Aet>een oALe.tivisB, suALe.tivisB, and t#e error t#eor), Mill assuBes oALe.tivisB is t#e .orre.t vie>C Q#ere are true Boral .laiBsC Moreover, >e .an #ave Nno>ledge regarding soBe et#i.al .laiBs, as to >#et#er t#e) are true or =alseC Q#ere .an Ae a s)steBati. Aod) o= et#i.al Nno>ledge, an et#i.al s.ien.eC Uo#n Stuart Mill puAlis#ed #is s#ort AooN Utilitarianism as a series o= BagaVine arti.les in *WX*C Mill #iBsel= >as raised as a utilitarianC 4n Dngland in t#e earl) nineteent# .entur), t#e utilitarians >ere a loose grouping o= politi.al and so.ial re=orBers, =ollo>ers o= UereB) Sent#aBC Q#e) opposed t#e doBination o= t#e aristo.ra.) and aristo.rati. values, =avored deBo.ra.) and t#e eBerging BarNet e.onoB)C 4n .#apter * Mill sa)s all t#e BaLor opposed vie>points on Boralit) all agree t#ere is Boral Nno>ledge and t#ere .an Ae a s.ien.e o= BoralsC Sut t#e s.ien.e o= Borals is presentl) in Aad s#apeC R#)Y R#at8s t#e proAleBY Mill; >e la.N Oa .riterion o= rig#t and >rongPZin ot#er >ords, a prin.iple t#at =iIes or deterBines >#at is rig#t and >rongC
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4n t#is little AooN Mill >ill present and de=end a proposed .riterion o= Boral rig#t and >rongZa Boral t#eor)C Rig#t at t#e start iBportant Boves get Bade t#at s#ape Mill8s entire dis.ussionC [irst paragrap#; Mill identi=ies t#e Guestion o= t#e summum bonum F#ig#est goodH >it# t#e proAleB o= t#e =oundations o= Boralit)Zt#e Guest =or a .riterion o= rig#t and >rongC R#at8s t#e .onne.tionY R#) does =iguring out an ans>er to t#e Guestion, >#at is t#e #ig#est good, solve t#e proAleB t#at >e need a .riterion o= rig#t and >rongY 2eIt page, a .lueC Mill >rites; OJll a.tion is =or t#e saNe o= soBe end and rules o= a.tion, it seeBs natural to suppose, Bust taNe t#eir >#ole .#ara.ter and .olor =roB t#e end to >#i.# t#e) are suAservientCP R#en >e engage in pursuit, a .lear and pre.ise .on.eption
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