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Phil12_S11_Categorizing_phenomena(4-14-2011)

# Phil12_S11_Categorizing_phenomena(4-14-2011) - Categorizing...

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Categorizing phenomena Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Spring 2011 UC San Diego 4/14/2011 Thursday, April 14, 2011

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Midterm exam: Tuesday April 26th Question types: multiple choice and short essays Sample midterm questions to be posted on course website - Answers won’t be posted. How to check your answers? in section in your TA’s office hours in my office hours: Tuesdays 1-3pm and by appt after exhausting these options, by email You need to have worked through the questions, be able to tell us which options you’re trying to choose between and why Thursday, April 14, 2011
Review: Falsification Argument form for falsifying hypotheses: If the hypothesis is true AND all auxiliary hypotheses needed to make the prediction are true AND the experimental setup is adequate, then the prediction will be true. The prediction is not true. Either the hypothesis is false, OR an auxiliary hypothesis is false, OR the experimental setup is not adequate. To the degree (and only to the degree) that we are sure that no auxiliary hypothesis is false and that the experimental setup is adequate, we can infer that the hypothesis is false. Thursday, April 14, 2011

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Review: Confirmation Argument form for confirming hypotheses: If the hypothesis under investigation were not approximately true AND a plausible alternative explanation were not true, then this prediction would not be very unlikely to be true The prediction is true. The hypothesis is approximately true OR a plausible alternative hypothesis is true. To the degree (and only to that degree) that we can rule out an alternative that explains the same prediction, we can infer that the hypothesis under investigation is true Thursday, April 14, 2011
Clicker question The primary reason hypotheses and theories are fallible is that: A. It is always possible that additional evidence will require scientists to revise their conclusions B. Hypotheses and theories, even good ones, often turn out to be false and so must be rejected. C. Hypotheses and theories are only guesses, and should be rejected in favor of facts D. Scientists make logical mistakes and need to correct themselves Thursday, April 14, 2011

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Review Perception is not transparent—we don’t just see what is out there. What we see is influenced by: - The way the visual system is constructed - The surrounding context - The effects of attention - What we have previously learned and know - What we expect to see Thursday, April 14, 2011
A problem not just for science The law relies heavily on people’s reports of what they have seen Perceptual biases affect eye-witness testimony The problem of eye-witness testimony is compounded by the “misinformation effect”: - after witnessing an event, one’s memory of the event may be affected by post-event information one learns, even by what questions one is asked Thursday, April 14, 2011

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Loftus on Eye-Witness Testimony Showed subjects a video in which there was a car accident at a stop sign - Half the subjects later asked a question about
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