7-Memory - I

7-Memory - I - Memory - I Presenter Tathagata Bhattacharjee...

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Memory - I Presenter Tathagata Bhattacharjee
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 2 Objectives z Characteristics z Memory Hierarchy list z Memory Types z Memory organization
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 3 Characteristics of Computer Memory z The computer memory can be characterized under the following points: 1. Location 2. Capacity 3. Unit of transfer 4. Access Method 5. Performance 6. Physical Types 7. Physical Characteristics 8. Organization
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 4 Location z Refers whether it is internal or external z Internal Main Memory Registers Cache z External Peripheral storage devices E.g. Disk, tape that are accessible to the processor via I/O controller
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 5 Types of Storage z Secondary Data that will eventually be used Long-term z Memory Data that will be used in the near future Temporary Faster access than storage z Registers Data immediately related to the operation being executed Faster access than memory
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 6 Capacity z Internal Memory Expressed in terms of bytes ( 1 byte = 8 bit) or word Word length can be 8, 16, 32 64 bits z External Memory Expressed in terms of bytes
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 7 Measuring Storage Capacity KB – kilobyte 1024 bytes Some diskettes Cache memory MB – megabyte Million bytes RAM GB – gigabyte Billion bytes Hard disks CDs and DVDs TB – terabytes Trillion bytes Large hard disks
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 8 Features of Internal memory z Internal memory is the one where the program code is loaded before its execution. z CPU refers to this memory for execution of any programs. z The memory is semiconductor and thus fast. z The size of the memory is limited and cost of internal memory is high (per bit of storage). z The storage is temporary.
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 9 Features of External Memory z External Memory is magnetic memory and generally large in size and capacity. z The cost per bit of storage is lower. z Measured in GB. z The storage is permanent.
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 10 Unit of Transfer z Internal Memory The size of data which is transferred in one operation. Unit of transfer is equal to the data lines into and out of the memory module This may be equal to word
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 11 Word z Unit of Organization of memory z The size of the word is typically equal to the number of bits used to represent a number and to the instruction length z Eg. 16 or 32 bit word.
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 12 Addressable units z In some systems, the addressable unit is the word z In many systems addressing is done at byte level z Number of memory location N = 2 A , A is a number of address lines.
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 13 Unit of Transfer for Main Memory z The Unit of transfer is the number of bits read out of or written into memory at a time z The unit of transfer need not equal a word or an addressable unit z Data are transferred in much larger units than a word, referred to a blocks
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 14 Method of Accessing z Sequential Access z Direct Access z Random Access
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course ECO 2023 taught by Professor Mr.raza during the Summer '10 term at FAU.

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7-Memory - I - Memory - I Presenter Tathagata Bhattacharjee...

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