22-CPU Structure

22-CPU Structure - CPU Structure and Function Presenter...

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CPU Structure and Function Presenter Tathagata Bhattacharjee
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 2 Processor Organization CPU must: Fetch instructions Interpret instructions Fetch data Process data Write data
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 3 CPU With Systems Bus
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 4 CPU Internal Structure
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 5 Register Organization Working space (temporary storage) for CPU Number and function vary between processor designs One of the major design decisions Top level of memory hierarchy User-visible registers Control and status registers
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 6 User Visible Registers May be referenced by means of the machine language that the CPU executes General Purpose Data Address Condition Codes
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 7 General Purpose Registers May be true general purpose (any general-purpose register can contain the operand for any opcode) May be restricted (registers for floating- point and stack operations) May be used for data or addressing Data Accumulator Addressing Segment
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 8 Address registers May be general purpose, or dedicated to a particular addressing mode Segment pointers Index registers Stack pointer
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 9 General Purpose vs. Specialized Make them general purpose Increase flexibility and programmer options Increase instruction size & complexity Make them specialized Smaller (faster) instructions Less flexibility
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 10 Number of Registers Between 8 - 32 Fewer = more memory references More does not reduce memory references and takes up processor space
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 11 Register Length Address registers should be large enough to hold the largest address Data registers should be large enough to hold the value of most data types Often possible to combine two data registers to hold double-length values C programming double int a; long int a;
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Tathagata Bhattacharjee 12 Condition Code Registers Sets of individual bits e.g. result of last operation was zero Can be read (implicitly) by programs e.g. Jump if zero Can not (usually) be set by programs
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13 Four essential Registers Used for the movement of data
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22-CPU Structure - CPU Structure and Function Presenter...

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