Cerebral%20Cortex%20v3%20-%20Student%20Copy

Cerebral%20Cortex%20v3%20-%20Student%20Copy - 10/14/09 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/14/09 1 Cerebral Cortex Anthony D. Nicholson BSc. (Qld.), M.Chiro. (Macq.), DACNB. 2 Overview of Anatomy Cerebral cortex is a sheet of neurons and their interconnections that is just a few mm thick This thin layer of grey matter is estimated to contain in excess of 25 billion neurons Size of cerebral hemispheres and area of cortex has increased with evolution of species - logical that associated with highest level of human development - language, abstract thinking etc 10/14/09 2 3 Overview of Anatomy Cerebral hemispheres arbitrarily divided into lobes according to adjacent cranial bone: Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital In reality all cortical tissues are contiguous 4 Phylogenetic Divisions Phylogentic division of cortical structures into paleocortex & neocortex We share paleocortex with lower life forms Neocortical tissue found only in humans 10/14/09 2 3 Overview of Anatomy Cerebral hemispheres arbitrarily divided into lobes according to adjacent cranial bone: Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital In reality all cortical tissues are contiguous 4 Phylogenetic Divisions Phylogentic division of cortical structures into paleocortex & neocortex We share paleocortex with lower life forms Neocortical tissue found only in humans 10/14/09 3 5 Paleocortex Pre & post central gyri Subcortical nuclei Caudate Nucleus Putamen Globus Pallidus Subthalamic Nucleus of Luys Subcortical nuclei & precental gyri form primitive motor pathways 6 Neocortex Most recently developed part of the neuraxis Rest of the cortical tissue which consists of Frontal lobe (except precentral gyrus) Temporal lobe Parietal lobe (except post central gyrus) Occipital lobe 10/14/09 4 7 Anatomy of Neocortex Neocortex has 6 layers: I. Molecular layer (Most superficial) II. External granular layer III. External pyramidal later IV. Internal granular layer V. Internal pyramidal layer VI. Multiform layer Columnar & horizontal organisation 8 Anatomy of Neocortex Pyramidal cells Most numerous neocortical neurons Named for their shape Giant pyramidal neurons called Betz cells - motor cortex Major output neurons of the cortex Remainder of cortical neurons referred to as non-pyramidal neurons 10/14/09 5 9 Anatomy of Neocortex Motor cortex referred to as agranular cortex as mostly large pyramidal cells (less granular appearance due to less small neurons) Sensory cortex referred to as granular cortex as many small non-pyramidal neurons 10 Anatomy of Neocortex Different neocortical areas are specialized for different functions - localization of function vs. global functional view Different areas have slightly different structures - Brodmann mapping system divides each hemisphere into 46 areas based upon anatomical differences 10/14/09 6 11 Afferent & Efferent Connections Afferents to cortex from...
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course ECO 2023 taught by Professor Mr.raza during the Summer '10 term at FAU.

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Cerebral%20Cortex%20v3%20-%20Student%20Copy - 10/14/09 1...

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