chapter2

chapter2 - Operating Systems Structure and Design Operating...

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Operating Systems Structure and Design Operating system structures OS components OS services system calls system structure virtual machines
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Key questions an operating system is a complex collection of software – too complex to be designed/implemented/understood as a single entity What are the components of an OS and what do they do? What services does an OS provide? What does the OS look like to the user?
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Process Management Main Memory Management File Management I/O System Management Secondary Management Networking Protection System Command-Interpreter System Components of an OS
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Process management a process is a program in execution (more specifics later) process is the basic unit of work on a computer process needs certain resources, including CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices, to accomplish its task the OS is responsible for the following activities w.r.t. process management. process creation and deletion process suspension and resumption provide mechanisms for: process synchronization process communication handling deadlock
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Deadlock A condition that occurs when two processes are each waiting for the other to complete before proceeding. The result is that both processes hang. Deadlocks occur most commonly in multitasking and client/server environments. Ideally, the programs that are deadlocked, or the operating system , should resolve the deadlock, but this doesn't always happen.
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Main memory management programs do not become processes until the are loaded into main memory and begin to execute main memory is a large array of words or bytes, each with its own address it is a repository of quickly accessible data shared by the CPU and I/O devices it is volatile – contents are lost in the case of system failure or power loss the OS is responsible for the following activities w.r.t. memory management: keep track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom decide which processes to load when memory space becomes available allocate and deallocate memory space as needed
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File management a file is a collection of related information defined by its creator files represent programs (both source and object forms) and data the OS maps logical files to physical devices the OS is responsible for the following activities w.r.t. file management: file creation and deletion directory creation and deletion support of primitives for manipulating files and directories mapping files onto secondary storage file backup on stable (nonvolatile) storage media
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Other components of the OS I/O system management a buffer-caching system a general device-driver interface drivers for specific hardware devices secondary storage management since main memory (primary storage) is volatile and small, the computer system must provide secondary storage to back up main memory the OS is responsible for the following activities w.r.t. disk management: free space management storage allocation disk scheduling
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course ECO 2023 taught by Professor Mr.raza during the Summer '10 term at FAU.

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chapter2 - Operating Systems Structure and Design Operating...

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