- Pain starts over centre of abdomen and is colicky in nature.
- Later moves into iliac fossa and is then more constant.
- Patient prefers to lie with knees bent.
- Pain on movement.
Malaise, vomiting, anorexia, occasional change in bowel habit.
- Main differentiating feature is time (i.e. acute = less than 3 months
- Usually caused by primary infection or a complication of URTI.
- Cough, sputum (colour depends on causative agent), wheeze, not usually fever or dyspnea (unless acute
-superimposed on chronic bronchitis).
95% due to stones, but occasionally without.
Stone remains impacted which then leads to chemical stasis and sterile inflammation and
can cause secondary infection by enteric organisms.
Fever, toxaemia, leukocytosis, rigors.
Upper abdominal pain in epigastrium and ® hypochondrium, radiating around
back, and classically up in between the scapulae.
Extremely tender, often palpable mass.
Bacterial infection of the bladder that leads to inflammation.
Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency, suprapubic pain and tenderness, cloudy, smelly,
or bloody urine.
Acute onset of central abdominal pain which shifts to left iliac fossa accompanied by
fever, vomiting, local tenderness and guarding.
Vague mass may be felt in the left iliac fossa and also on rectal exam (Not to be confused
with residual concrete from extra-curricular, homosexual activities from weekend).
Perforation into general peritoneal cavity produces the signs of general peritonitis.
A peri-colic abscess is like an appendix abscess but on the left hand side – a tender mass
accompanied by a swinging (what a slut!) fever and increased white cell count.
(inflammation of gastric epithelium)
Anorexia, coated tongue, pain over epigastrium, persistent vomiting, occasionally can
have persistent massive bleeding.
Flu like symptoms (chills, headaches, malaise, fever).
GIT symptoms – anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, distaste for rich fatty foods, distaste for
ciggies, constant upper abdominal pain, tender liver, tender enlarged cervical lymph nodes,
splenomegaly (especially in kids), itching, spider naevi, palmar erythema.
Icteric phase: Dark urine and yellow tint to sclera heralds the onset of jaundice. An obstruction to
biliary canaliculi develops, jaundice deepens, stools become paler (grey or yellow), urine darker, and
liver more easily palpable.
Jaundice peaks in weeks 1-2 and fades during a 2-4 week recovery phase.