Linux and shell commands

Linux and shell commands - Architecture of the Linux...

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    Architecture of the Linux Operating System
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    Linux has all of the components of a  typical OS  Kernel   The Linux kernel includes device driver  support for a large number of PC hardware  devices (graphics cards, network cards, hard  disks etc.), advanced processor and memory  management features, and support for many  different types of filesystems (including DOS  floppies and the ISO9660 standard for  CDROMs). 
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    Services that it provides to application programs and system utilities,  the kernel implements most BSD and SYSV  system calls, as well as the system calls  described in the POSIX.1 specification.  The kernel (in raw binary form that is loaded  directly into memory at system startup time) is  typically found in the file /boot/vmlinuz, while  the source files can usually be found in  /usr/src/linux.
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    Shells and GUIs   Linux supports two forms of command input:  through textual command line shells similar to  those found on most UNIX systems  (e.g. sh - the Bourne shell, bash - the Bourne  again shell and csh - the C shell) and through  graphical interfaces (GUIs) such as the KDE  and GNOME window managers.  If you are connecting remotely to a server  your access will typically be through a  command line shell.    
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    System Utilities   Virtually every system utility of UNIX  (including every system utility described  in the POSIX.2 specification) has been  ported to Linux.  This includes commands such as  ls,cp,grep, awk, sed, bc, wc, more, and so  on. 
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    These system utilities are designed to be  powerful tools that do a single task  extremely well (e.g. grep finds text inside  files while wc counts the number of words,  lines and bytes inside a file).  Users can often solve problems by  interconnecting these tools instead of  writing a large monolithic application  program. 
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    daemons   Linux's system utilities also include server  programs called  daemons  which provide  remote network and administration services  (e.g. telnetd and sshd provide remote login  facilities, lpd provides printing services, httpd  serves web pages, crond runs regular system  administration tasks automatically). 
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    Application programs   Examples include the emacs editor xv (an image viewer) gcc (a C compiler)  g++ (a C++ compiler)  xfig (a drawing package)  latex (a powerful typesetting language) and  soffice (StarOffice, which is an MS-Office  style clone that can read and write Word,  Excel and PowerPoint files). 
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    Linux and shell commands
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    There are two types of commands in linux, 
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course ECO 2023 taught by Professor Mr.raza during the Summer '10 term at FAU.

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Linux and shell commands - Architecture of the Linux...

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