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Psych Notes Ch. 9 Notes

Psych Notes Ch. 9 Notes - Ch 9 Motivation and Emotion...

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Ch. 9: Motivation and Emotion Motivation The force that moves people to act think or feel the way they do Theories of motivation : drive reduction theory o Motivated by drives Drive : an aroused state that occurs because of a psychological need Need : a physiological deprivation that causes a drive to fix deprivation drive=psychological need=physiological need nutrients hunger drive o Based on idea that humans want homeostasis : state of physiological balance When bodies are unbalanced, driven to do something to fix that o Problems: Can't explain all motivation Example: desire for knowledge Sometimes have drives not caused by needs Example: eat when not hungry o Sometimes act in ways that increase drives Example: going into a sauna Theories of motivation: o Incentive theory Motivated by incentives External goal that has capacity to motivate behavior Motivated by external rewards Big difference between drive and incentive theory? Drive theory : motivation is internal Incentive theory : motivation is external o Maslow's hierarchy of needs Human motivation organized in hierarchy of needs most necessary for survival to least necessary Arranged into pyramid with most basic needs at bottom, less essential needs at top Must satisfy the needs at the bottom before needs above are activated Example: food/shelter needed before worrying about order/beauty o Optimal arousal theory Yerkes-Dodson law : performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal
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Sex: a basic human motive Masters and Johnson (1960s): first large, systematic study of sexual response o Observed volunteers engaged in sexual activity o Divided sexual response into four phases called sexual response cycle Sexual response cycle: o Excitement phase: Sexual arousal begins, escalates rapidly Heart rate, breathing, BP increases Increased skin sensitivity muscle tension
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Psych Notes Ch. 9 Notes - Ch 9 Motivation and Emotion...

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