Psych Notes Ch. 6

Psych Notes Ch. 6 - Ch 6 Memory Memory Processes that allow...

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Ch. 6: Memory Memory: Processes that allow us to record, store, and retrieve experiences and information Encoding: recording info into memory Storage: holding info in memory Retrieval: Getting info back out of memory o Memory failure can happen at any of these point Encoding: Encoding is an active process Usually have to pay attention to stimuli to encode them Selective attention: Art of focusing on a specific stimulus while ignoring others o Intentional Blindness: Failure to notice unexpected events when working on a task o Memory for stimuli affected by how much attention and what type of attention a o Less attention=reduced encoding=less chance of remembering info Levels of process theory: the more deeply we process info, the better we remember it o Different levels of processing info depends on where we focus our attention o Shallow level = structural encoding Focus on physical structure of stimulus (font, letter shape) F o Intermediate Level = phonemic encoding I Focus on sound of stimulus (rhyming, vowel type) F o Deep Level = semantic encoding D Focus on meaning of stimulus (definition, synonyms) F o Deepest Level = self-referent encoding Focus on relating stimuli to self F Rehearsal: process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about info o Maintenance rehearsal: repeating information o Elaborative rehearsal: focus on meaning of the info and trying to expand on it e Elaborative rehearsal tends to work better Imagery: creation of images to represent items that need to be remembered r o Can be used to enhance encoding and increase memory C o Dual code hypothesis: encoding information using multiple codes enhances memory e Storage:
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Maintaining encoded information in memory over time M Information processing theorists: use computer metaphor to explain memory Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory A o 3 stages of storage: o Sensory Memory: Holds incoming sensory info for less than a second H Without attention, info fades very quickly With attention, info moves into short term memory o Short-term memory: Temporarily holds limited amounts of info Can hold info for a max of ~20 seconds With rehearsal, will last as long as rehearsal continues Limited in capacity Miller: capacity is 7 + or – 2 items
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