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Psych Notes Ch. 7

Psych Notes Ch. 7 - feel like these events are much more...

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Ch. 7: Thinking Cognition: Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Problem solving: Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking/ behaving in certain ways o Algorithm: strategies that guarantee a correct solution to a problem Example: Testing out all possible solutions to a problem (Testing out all possible combinations of four numbers to get pin number). VERY time consuming o Heuristics: shortcut strategies that suggest a solution but do not guarantee an answer Example: Trying to find pin number you use numbers that are of significance to you (birthdays, old phone numbers). Not always accurate Heuristics and Other Biases: o Availability Heuristic: predicting the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining the event Example: Do more people die annually in U.S. of shark attacks or falling airplane parts? More people die of airplane parts than shark attacks but media talks about shark attacks more often making us
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Unformatted text preview: feel like these events are much more common than dying by falling airplane parts. (Can lead us a stray of our judgments) o Representative Heuristic: assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category Example: assume every Irish person has red hair o Confirmation bias: tendency to search for & use info that supports our beliefs while not looking for/ignoring info that refutes our beliefs o Hindsight bias: tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that you accurately predicted the outcome o Fixation: getting stuck on using a previously successful strategy to try to solve a new problem Functional Fixedness: failing to solve a problem because you get stuck thinking about an object’s usual functions Ch 5: pg. 161-166, 180-186 Ch 6: pg. 221-225 Ch 7: pg. 229-242, 251-259 (some of this material on language may also be covered during the guest lecture)...
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