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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Information 2.1 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES • What are the major features of a business that are important for understanding the role of information systems? • How do information systems support the major business functions: sales and marketing, manufacturing and production, finance and accounting, and human resources? • How do systems serve the various levels of management in a business and how are these systems related? 2.2 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued) • How do enterprise applications, collaboration and communication systems, and intranets improve organizational performance? • What is the role of the information system’s function in a business? 2.3 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Information Systems Join the Tupperware Party • Problem: Changing business model caused unnecessary difficulty for Tupperware sales consultants. • Solutions: Implement Web-based order management system that simplifies order entry and other tasks. 2.4 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Information Systems Join the Tupperware Party • Oracle Collaboration Suite and Oracle Portal also streamlines communication and support. • Demonstrates IT’s role in centralizing data, improving production processes, and driving growth and profitability. • Illustrates the importance of automating business processes to reduce workloads and increase productivity. 2.5 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Information Systems Join the Tupperware Party 2.6 Essentials of Business Information Systems Essentials Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Business: Formal organization that makes products or provides a service in order to make a profit Organizing a Business: Basic Business Functions Organizing • Four basic business functions • Manufacturing and production • Sales and marketing • Finance and accounting • Human resources 2.7 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business The Four Major Functions of a Business Figure 2-1 Every business, regardless of its size, must perform four functions to succeed. It must produce the product or service; market and sell the product; keep track of accounting and financial transactions; and perform basic human resources tasks, such as hiring and retaining employees. 2.8 Essentials of Business Information Systems Essentials Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Organizing a Business: Basic Business Functions • Five basic business entities: • Suppliers • Customers • Employees • Invoices/payments • Products and services 2.9 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Business Processes • Logically related set of tasks that define how specific business tasks are performed • The tasks each employee performs, in what order, and on what schedule • E.g. Steps in hiring an employee • Some processes tied to functional area • Sales and marketing: Identifying customers • Some processes are cross-functional • 2.10 Fulfilling customer order Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business The Order Fulfillment Process Fulfilling a customer order involves a complex set of steps that requires the close coordination of the sales, accounting, and manufacturing functions. 2.11 Figure 2-2 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Interactive Session: Organizations Interactive Toyota As Number One • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: • What are the basic principles of Toyota’s production system? To which areas of the organization do these principles apply? • How is TPS interconnected with the culture at Toyota? Are TPS and Toyota’s culture interdependent? Could one exist without the other? • Describe how information systems support each of the business processes described in this case. 2.12 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Managing a Business and Firm Hierarchies • Firms coordinate work of employees by developing hierarchy in which authority is concentrated at top – Senior management – Middle management – Operational management – Knowledge workers – Data workers – Production or service workers • Each group has different needs for information 2.13 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Levels in a Firm Figure 2-3 Business organizations are hierarchies consisting of three principal levels: senior management, middle management, and operational management. Information systems serve each of these levels. Scientists and knowledge workers often work with middle management. 2.14 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business The Business Environment • Global environment Global factors factors • Technology and Technology science science • Economy • Politics • International International change change 2.15 • Immediate Immediate environment factors environment • Customers • Suppliers • Competitors Competitors • Regulations • Stockholders Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business The Business Environment Figure 2-4 To be successful, an organization must constantly monitor and respond to—or even anticipate—developments in its environment. A firm's environment includes specific groups with which the business must deal directly, such as customers, suppliers, and competitors as well as the broader general environment, including socioeconomic trends, political conditions, technological innovations, and global events. 2.16 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business The Role of Information Systems in a Business • Firms invest in information systems in order to: • Achieve operational excellence • Develop new products and services • Attain customer intimacy and service • Improve decision making • Promote competitive advantage • Ensure survival 2.17 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Functional Perspective Systems • Sales and marketing systems • Manufacturing and production systems • Finance and accounting systems • Human resources systems 2.18 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Functional Perspective • Sales and marketing systems • • Support activities for selling and marketing firm’s products or services Senior management: • • Middle management: • • Support market research, analyze marketing campaigns, pricing decisions, sales performance Operational management and employees: • 2.19 Monitor trends affecting products and sales, planning for new products and services, monitor performance of competitors Locating and contacting prospective customers, process orders, provide customer service support Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Example of a Sales Information System Figure 2-5 This system captures sales data at the moment the sale takes place to help the business monitor sales transactions and to provide information to help management analyze sales trends and the effectiveness of marketing campaigns. 2.20 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Functional Perspective • Manufacturing and production systems • • Support activities for producing firm’s products or services Senior management: • • Middle management: • • Analyze and monitor manufacturing and production costs and resources Operational management • 2.21 Help plan long-term manufacturing goals, such as technology investments and locating new plants Manage status of production tasks Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business Overview of an Inventory System This system provides information about the number of items available in inventory to support manufacturing and production activities. Figure 2-6 2.22 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Functional Perspective • Finance and accounting systems • • Support activities for managing financial assets, firm’s capitalization, and financial records Senior management: • • Middle management: • • Oversee and control firm’s financial resources Operational management • 2.23 Establish long-term investment goals and provide longrange forecasts of firm’s financial performance Track flow of funds in firm through transactions (paychecks, payments, securities reports, receipts, etc.) Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business An Accounts Receivable System Figure 2-7 An accounts receivable system tracks and stores important customer data, such as payment history, credit rating, and billing history. 2.24 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Functional Perspective • Human resources systems • • Support activities for attracting, developing, and maintaining firm’s workforce Senior management: • • Middle management: • • Monitor and analyze recruitment, allocation, and compensation of employees Operational management • 2.25 Identify manpower requirements (skill, education level, types and numbers of positions, etc.) for meeting long-term business plans Track recruitment and placement of employees Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Components of a Business An Employee Record-Keeping System This system maintains data on the firm’s employees to support the human resources function. Figure 2-8 2.26 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Interactive Session: People Google’s New Search for the Best and the Brightest • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the Read following questions: following • Did Google’s traditional hiring practices create business problems? Did Explain your answer. Explain • Is Google’s quantitative approach to hiring a good solution to its Is employee recruiting problems? Why or why not? employee • What role does culture play in Google’s hiring preferences? • What kind of system or systems described in this chapter are What discussed in this case? What are the inputs, processes, and outputs? discussed 2.27 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Interactive Session: People Google’s New Search for the Best and the Brightest • Create a list of ten questions that you think might be appropriate for Create Google’s job applicant survey. Justify each question with a short explanation of why the answer would be useful. explanation • If you were applying for a job at Google, how would you want to be If evaluated? Which evaluation techniques do you think favor your strengths? Which techniques might expose your weaknesses? strengths? 2.28 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Constituency Perspective • Transaction processing systems • Keep track of basic activities and transactions of organization (e.g. sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, flow of materials in a factory) • Management information systems and decisionsupport systems • Help with monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities • Executive support systems: • 2.29 Help address strategic issues and long-term trends, both in firm and in external environment Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Constituency Perspective • Transaction processing systems • Serve operational managers • Principal purpose is to answer routine questions and to track the flow of transactions through the organization • E.g. Inventory questions, granting credit to customer • • Major producers of information for other systems • 2.30 Monitor status of internal operations and firm’s relationship with external environment Highly central to business operations and functioning Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Constituency Perspective • Management information systems • Provide middle managers with reports on firm’s performance • To monitor firm and help predict future performance • • Provide weekly, monthly, annual results, but may enable drilling down into daily or hourly data • 2.31 Summarize and report on basic operations using data from TPS Typically not very flexible systems with little analytic capability Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise How MIS Obtain Data from Organization’s TPS Figure 2-9 In the system illustrated by this diagram, three TPS supply summarized transaction data to the MIS reporting system at the end of the time period. Managers gain access to the organizational data through the MIS, which provides them with the appropriate reports. 2.32 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Sample MIS Report Figure 2-10 This report, showing summarized annual sales data, was produced by the MIS in Figure 2-9. 2.33 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Constituency Perspective • Decision support systems (DSS) • Support non-routine decision making for middle management • E.g. What would impact on production schedules be if sales doubled in December? • Use information from TPS, MIS, and external sources • Use models to analyze data • • 2.34 E.g. voyage estimating system of metals company that calculates financial and technical voyage details Focus on extracting, analyzing information from large amounts of data Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Voyage-Estimating Decision Support System Figure 2-11 This DSS operates on a powerful PC. It is used daily by managers who must develop bids on shipping contracts. 2.35 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Systems from a Constituency Perspective • Executive support systems (ESS) • Serve senior managers • Address strategic issues and long-term trends • E.g. What products should we make in 5 years? • • Provide generalized computing capacity that can be applied to changing array of problems • Draw summarized information from MIS, DSS and data from external events • 2.36 Address non-routine decision-making Typically use portal with Web interface to present content Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Model of an Executive Support System Figure 2-12 This system pools data from diverse internal and external sources and makes them available to executives in an easy-to-use form. 2.37 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Types of Business Information Systems Relationship of Systems to One Another • TPS: Major source of data for other systems • ESS: Primarily a recipient of data from lowerlevel systems • Other systems may exchange data as well • Exchange of data between functional areas • E.g. Sales order transmitted to manufacturing system • In most organizations, systems are loosely integrated 2.38 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Interrelationships Among Systems Figure 2-13 The various types of systems in the organization have interdependencies. TPS are major producers of information that is required by many other systems in the firm, which, in turn, produce information for other systems. These different types of systems have been loosely coupled in most organizations. 2.39 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Enterprise Applications • Enterprise applications are systems that span functional areas and automate processes for multiple business functions and organizational areas; they include: • Enterprise systems • Supply chain management systems • Customer relationship management systems • Knowledge management systems 2.40 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Enterprise Application Architecture Figure 2-14 Enterprise applications automate processes that span multiple business functions and organizational levels and may extend outside the organization. 2.41 Essentials of Business Information Systems Essentials Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Enterprise Systems Enterprise • Integrate data from key business processes into single system • Speed communication of information throughout firm • Enable greater flexibility in responding to customer requests, greater accuracy in order fulfillment • Enable managers of large firms to assemble overall view of operations • Alcoa used ERP to eliminate redundancies and inefficiencies in its disparate systems 2.42 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Enterprise Systems Figure 2-15 Enterprise systems integrate the key business processes of an entire firm into a single software system that enables information to flow seamlessly throughout the organization. These systems focus primarily on internal processes but may include transactions with customers and vendors. 2.43 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Supply Chain Management Systems • Manage relationships with suppliers, purchasing firms, distributors, and logistics companies Manage shared information about orders, production, inventory levels, etc. • Goal is to move correct amount of product from source to point of consumption as quickly as possible and at lowest cost • Type of interorganizational system: • 2.44 Automating flow of information across organizational boundaries Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Example of a Supply Chain Management System Customer orders, shipping notifications, optimized shipping plans, and other supply chain information flow among Haworth’s Warehouse Management System (WMS), Transportation Management System (TMS), and its back-end corporate systems. Figure 2-16 2.45 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Customer Relationship Management Systems • Help manage relationship with customers • Coordinate business processes that deal with customers to optimize revenue and customer satisfaction, and increase sales • Combine sales, marketing, and service record data from multiple communication channels to provide unified view of customer, eliminate duplicate efforts • E.g. Saab CRM applications to achieve 360º view of customers resulted in greater follow-up rate on sales leads and increased customer satisfaction 2.46 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Illustrated here are some of the capabilities of Salesforce.com, a market-leading provider of on-demand customer relationship management (CRM) software. CRM systems integrate information from sales, marketing, and customer service. 2.47 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Knowledge Management Systems • Intangible knowledge assets • • Knowledge about producing and delivering products Source of value and advantage for firms • Knowledge management systems: • • 2.48 Help capture, storage, distribute, and apply knowledge so that it can be leveraged for strategic benefit Include systems for: • Managing and distributing documents, graphics, other digital knowledge objects • Creating knowledge directories of employees with specialized expertise • Distributing knowledge Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Intranets and Extranets • Technology platforms that increase integration and expedite the flow of information • Intranets: • Internal networks based on Internet standards • Typically utilize a portal • Extranets: • • 2.49 Intranets extended for authorized use outside the company for partners, customers Facilitate collaboration Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Collaboration and Communication Systems: Collaboration “Interaction” Jobs in a Global Economy “Interaction” • Interaction jobs: • Primary value-adding activities are talking, emailing, presenting, persuading • 41% of U.S. labor force • 70% of new jobs since 1998 • Involves knowledge and problem-solving that can’t be put into information system 2.50 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise Collaboration and Communication Systems: Collaboration “Interaction” Jobs in a Global Economy “Interaction” • Enterprise-wide information system solutions for interaction • • E-mail and instant messaging (IM) • Cell phones and wireless handhelds • Social networking • Wikis • 2.51 Internet-based collaboration environments Virtual worlds Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Systems That Span the Enterprise E-Business, E-Commerce, and E-Government • E-business • Use of digital technology and Internet to drive major business processes • E-commerce • Subset of e-business • Buying and selling goods and services through Internet • E-government: • 2.52 Using Internet technology to deliver information and services to citizens, employees, and businesses Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems The Information System’s Function in Business The Information Systems Department • Programmers • Systems analysts • Principle liaisons to rest of firm • Information systems managers • Leaders of teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunications managers, database specialists, managers of computer operations and data entry staff • Senior managers: CIO, CSO, CKO • End users • External specialists 2.53 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 2 E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems The Information System’s Function in Business Information Systems Services Information • Services provided by the information systems department include: • Computing and telecommunications services • Data management services • Application software services • Physical facilities management services • IT management services • IT standards services • IT educational services • IT research and development services 2.54 ...
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