laudon_ch03 - Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Information 3.1 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES • How does Porter’s competitive forces model help companies develop competitive strategies using information systems? • How do the value chain and value web models help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications? • How do information systems help businesses use synergies, core competencies, and networkbased strategies to achieve competitive advantage? 3.2 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued) • How do competing on a global scale and promoting quality enhance competitive advantage? • Evaluate the role of business process reengineering (BPR) in enhancing competitiveness. 3.3 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Apple’s iTunes: Music’s New Gatekeeper • Problem: Taking advantage of opportunities from new and disruptive technology, staying ahead of traditional competitors. • Solutions: Launched iPod and set up iTunes Music Store to create a marketplace for portable, downloadable music. 3.4 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Apple’s iTunes: Music’s New Gatekeeper • Partnerships with artists and recording labels allow iTunes to supply exclusive content in return for driving sales and increasing groups’ popularity. • Illustrates digital technology’s role in gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage. 3.5 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Apple’s iTunes: Music’s New Gatekeeper 3.6 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Porter’s Competitive Forces Model • Way to understand competitive advantage • Five competitive forces shape fate of firm 1. Traditional competitors • Competitors in market space continuously devise new products, new efficiencies, switching costs 2. New market entrants • • 3.7 Some industries have low barriers to entry • E.g. food industry vs. microchip industry Newer companies may have advantages • Newer equipment, younger workforce, etc. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Porter’s Competitive Forces Model 1. Substitute products and services • Substitutes customers can purchase if your prices too high • E.g. Internet music service vs. CDs 2. Customers • Can customers easily switch to competitor’s products? • Can customers force firm and competitors to compete on price alone (transparent marketplace) 3. Suppliers • 3.8 The more suppliers a firm has, the greater control it can exercise over suppliers Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Porter’s Competitive Forces Model In Porter’s competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry’s environment: new market entrants, substitute products, customers, and suppliers. 3.9 Figure 3-1 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Basic strategy: Align IT with business objectives – 75% of businesses fail to align their IT with their business objectives, leading to lower profitability – To align IT: • Identify business goals and strategies • Break strategic goals into concrete activities and processes • Identify metrics for measuring progress • Determine how IT can help achieve business goals • Measure actual performance 3.10 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Low-cost leadership – Use information systems to achieve the lowest operational costs and the lowest prices – E.g. Wal-Mart • Inventory replenishment system sends orders to suppliers when purchase recorded at cash register • Minimizes inventory at warehouses, operating costs • Efficient customer response system 3.11 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Wal-Mart’s continuous inventory replenishment system uses sales data captured at the checkout counter to transmit orders to restock merchandise directly to its suppliers. The system enables Wal-Mart to keep costs low while finetuning its merchandise to meet customer demands. 3.12 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Product differentiation – Use information systems to enable new products and services, or greatly change the customer convenience in using your existing products and services – E.g. Google’s continuous innovations, Apple’s iPhone – Use information systems to customize, personalize products to fit specifications of individual consumers • Dell • Land’s End’s mass customization 3.13 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage On the Dell Inc. Web site, customers can select the options they want and order their computer custom built to these specifications. Dell’s assemble-to-order system is a major source of competitive advantage. 3.14 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Focus on market niche – Use information systems to enable specific market focus, and serve narrow target market better than competitors • Analyzes customer buying habits, preferences • Advertising pitches to smaller and smaller target markets – E.g. Hilton Hotel’s OnQ System • Analyzes data collected on guests to determine preferences and guest’s profitability 3.15 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Interactive Session: Organizations Can Detroit Make the Cars Customers Want? • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: • Why is AutoNation having a problem with its inventory? Why is this also a problem for auto manufacturers such as GM, Ford, and Chrysler? How Is this problem impacting the business performance of AutoNation and of the auto manufacturers? 3.16 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Interactive Session: Organizations Can Detroit Make the Cars Customers Want? • What pieces of data does AutoNation need to determine which cars to stock in each of its dealerships? How can it obtain these data? • What is AutoNation’s solution to its problem? What obstacles must AutoNation overcome to implement its solution? How effective will the solution be? 3.17 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy – Strong linkages to customers and suppliers increase switching costs and loyalty – Chrysler: Uses IS to facilitate direct access from suppliers to production schedules • Permits suppliers to decide how and when to ship suppliers to Chrysler factories, allowing more lead time in producing goods. – Amazon: Keeps track of user preferences for purchases, and recommends titles purchased by others 3.18 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Information System Strategies for Dealing with Information Competitive Forces Competitive • Some companies pursue several strategies at same time – Dell emphasizes low cost plus customization of products – Parker Hannifin offers products with unique features but competes on price • Successfully using IS to achieve competitive advantage requires precise coordination of technology, organizations, and people 3.19 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Interactive Session: People Parker Hannifin Finds the Right Price • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: • What is strategic pricing? How does it work? What data are required? • What role do information systems play in strategic pricing? What role do people play in getting a strategic pricing system to work? • What kind of impact does strategic pricing have on a business such as Parker Hannifin? • What other kinds of businesses could benefit from strategic pricing? • How are value chain and competitive forces analysis related to Parker Hannifin’s strategic pricing? 3.20 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage The Internet’s Impact on Competitive Advantage • Enables new products and services • Transforms industries • Increases bargaining power of customers and suppliers • Intensifies competitive rivalry • Creates new opportunities for building brands and large customer bases 3.21 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage The Internet’s Impact on Competitive Advantage • Existing competitors: Widens market, increasing competitors, reducing differences, pressure to compete on price • New entrants: Reduces barriers to entry (e.g. need for sales force declines), provides technology for driving business processes • Substitute products and services: Facilitates creation of new products and services • Customers’ bargaining power: Bargaining power shifts to customer • Suppliers’ bargaining power: Procurement over Internet raises power over suppliers, suppliers can benefit from reduced barriers to entry and elimination of intermediaries 3.22 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage The Business Value Chain Model The • Highlights specific activities in a business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where information systems are likely to have a strategic impact • Primary activities • Support activities • Benchmarking • Best practices 3.23 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage The Value Chain Model This figure provides examples of systems for both primary and support activities of a firm and of its value partners that would add a margin of value to a firm’s products or services. 3.24 Figure 3-2 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Extending the Value Chain: The Value Web Extending • A firm’s value chain is linked to the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers • A value web is a collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product collectively • Value webs are flexible and adapt to changes in supply and demand 3.25 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage The Value Web The value web is a networked system that can synchronize the value chains of business partners within an industry to respond rapidly to changes in supply and demand. 3.26 Figure 3-3 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Synergies, Core Competencies, and Synergies, Network-Based Strategies Network-Based • Synergies • • When two firms can pool markets and expertise (e.g. recent bank mergers) • Lower costs and generate profits • 3.27 When output of some units can be used as inputs to other units Enabled by information systems that ties together disparate units so they act as whole Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Synergies, Core Competencies, and Synergies, Network-Based Strategies Network-Based • Core competency: • Activities for which firm is world-class leader • E.g. world’s best miniature parts designer, best package delivery service • Relies on knowledge that is gained over many years of experience as well as knowledge research • Any information system that encourages the sharing of knowledge across business units enhances competency • 3.28 E.g. Procter & Gamble uses P&G uses intranet to help people working on similar problems share ideas and expertise Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Synergies, Core Competencies, and Synergies, Network-Based Strategies Network-Based • Network-based strategies • Network economics • Marginal costs of adding another participant are near zero, while marginal gain is much larger • E.g. larger number of participants in Internet, greater value to all participants • Virtual company • Uses networks to link people, resources, and ally with other companies to create and distribute products without traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations 3.29 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Disruptive Technologies: Riding the Wave • Disruptive technologies: • Technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services and business models obsolete, e.g.: • Personal computers • World Wide Web • Internet music services • First movers vs. fast followers • First movers of disruptive technologies may fail to see potential, allowing second movers to reap rewards (fast followers) 3.30 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on a Global Scale The Internet and Globalization • Prior to Internet, competing globally was only option for huge firms able to afford factories, warehouses, and distribution centers abroad • The Internet drastically reduces costs of operating globally • Globalization benefits • • • 3.31 Scale economies and resource cost reduction Higher utilization rates, fixed capital costs, and lower cost per unit of production Speeding time to market Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on a Global Scale An HP Laptop’s Path to Market Hewlett-Packard and other electronics companies assign distribution and production of their products to a number of different countries. Figure 3-4 3.32 Essentials of Business Information Systems Essentials Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on a Global Scale Global Business and System Strategies • Domestic exporters • Heavy centralization of corporate activities in home country • Multinationals • Concentrates financial management at central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing to other countries • Franchisers • Product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in home country but rely on foreign units for further production, marketing, and human resources • Transnationals • 3.33 Regional (not national) headquarters and perhaps world headquarters; optimizing resources as needed Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on a Global Scale Global System Configurations • Centralized systems • All development and operation at domestic home base • Duplicated systems • Development at home base but operations managed by autonomous units in foreign locations • Decentralized systems • Each foreign unit designs own solutions and systems • Networked systems • 3.34 Development and operations occur in integrated and coordinated fashion across all units Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on a Global Scale Global Business Organization Systems Configurations The large Xs show the dominant patterns, and the small Xs show the emerging patterns. For instance, domestic exporters rely predominantly on centralized systems, but there is continual pressure and some development of decentralized systems in local marketing regions. Figure 3-5 3.35 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Quality and Design What Is Quality? • Producer perspective: • Conformance to specifications and absence of variation from specs • Customer perspective: • Physical quality (reliability), quality of service, psychological quality • Total quality management (TCM) • • Quality control is end in itself All people, functions responsible for quality • Six sigma • 3.36 Measure of quality: 3.4 defects/million opportunities Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Quality and Design How Information Systems Improve Quality • Reduce cycle time and simplify production process • Benchmarking • Use customer demands to improve products and services • Improve design quality and precision • Computer-aided design (CAD) systems • Improve production precision and tighten production tolerances 3.37 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Quality and Design Computer-aided design (CAD) systems improve the quality and precision of product design by performing much of the design and testing work on the computer. 3.38 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Business Process Reengineering • Tasks are streamlined to eliminate repetitive and redundant work • Mortgage banks have been great beneficiaries of BPR, achieving remarkable leaps forward in efficiency • Workflow management: • • • • 3.39 Streamlines business procedures so documents can be moved easily and efficiently Automates processes Eliminates delays Allows simultaneous work Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Steps in Effective Reengineering • Understanding what business processes need improvement • Understanding how the improvements will help the firm execute its strategy • Understanding and measuring the performance of existing processes as baselines • Managing change 3.40 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Redesigning Mortgage Processing in the United States By redesigning their mortgage processing systems and the mortgage application process, mortgage banks are able to reduce the costs of processing the average mortgage from $3,000 to $1,000 and reduce the time of approval from six weeks to one week or less. Some banks are even preapproving mortgages and locking interest rates on the same day the customer applies. Figure 3-6A 3.41 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Redesigning Mortgage Processing in the United States Figure 3-6B 3.42 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Redesigning Mortgage Processing in the United States Figure 3-6C 3.43 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems Competing on Business Processes Redesigning Mortgage Processing in the United States Figure 3-6D 3.44 ...
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