laudon_ch06 - Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Technology 6.1 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES • What are the principal components of telecommunications networks and key networking technologies? • What are the main telecommunications transmission media and types of networks? • How do the Internet and Internet technology work and how do they support communication and ebusiness? 6.2 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued) • What are the principal technologies and standards for wireless networking, communication, and Internet access? • Why are radio frequency identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks valuable for business? 6.3 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Hyatt Regency Osaka Uses Wireless Networking For High-Touch Service • Problem: Outdated communication methods, pressures to adapt in a competitive industry. • Solutions: Implement a mobile wireless LAN to provide integrated voice and data coverage across the entire hotel. 6.4 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Hyatt Regency Osaka Uses Wireless Networking For High-Touch Service • Intel Centrino and Intel XScale technologies capable of handling phone calls as well as data communication allowed employees to access information from anywhere in the hotel. • Demonstrates IT’s role in hastening the communication and flow of information. • Illustrates digital technology’s role contemporary networking technology. 6.5 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Hyatt Regency Osaka Uses Wireless Networking For High-Touch Service 6.6 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Networking and Communication Trends • Convergence: • Telephone networks and computer networks converging into single digital network using Internet standards • Cable companies providing voice service • Broadband: • More than 60% U.S. Internet users have broadband access • Broadband wireless: • 6.7 Voice and data communication as well as Internet access are increasingly taking place over broadband wireless platforms Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World What Is a Computer Network? • Two or more connected computers • Major components in simple network • • • • • • Client computer Server computer Network interfaces (NICs) Connection medium Network operating system Hub or switch • Routers • 6.8 Device used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that data sent gets to the correct address Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Components of a Simple Computer Network Figure 6-1 Illustrated here is a very simple computer network, consisting of computers, a network operating system residing on a dedicated server computer, cabling (wiring) connecting the devices, network interface cards (NIC), switches, and a router. 6.9 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Networks in Large Companies • Components can include: • • Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporate network Various powerful servers • • 6.10 Corporate intranet, extranet • • • • • Web site Backend systems Mobile wireless LANs (Wi-Fi networks) Videoconferencing system Telephone network Wireless cell phones Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Corporate Network Infrastructure Figure 6-2 Today’s corporate network infrastructure is a collection of many different networks from the public switched telephone network, to the Internet, to corporate local area networks linking workgroups, departments, or office floors. 6.11 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Key Digital Networking Technologies • Client/server computing • • Clients linked through network controlled by network server computer • Server sets rules of communication for network and provides every client with an address so others can find it on the network • Has largely replaced centralized mainframe computing • 6.12 Distributed computing model The Internet: Largest implementation of client/server computing Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Key Digital Networking Technologies • Packet switching • • Previous circuit-switched networks required assembly of complete point-to-point circuit • 6.13 Method of slicing digital messages into parcels (packets), sending packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling packets at destination Packet switching more efficient use of network’s communications capacity Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Packet-Switched Networks and Packet Communications Figure 6-3 Data are grouped into small packets, which are transmitted independently over various Communications channels and reassembled at their final destination. 6.14 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Key Digital Networking Technologies • TCP/IP and connectivity • Connectivity between computers enabled by protocols • Protocols: Rules that govern transmission of information between two points • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Common worldwide standard that is basis for Internet • Department of Defense reference model for TCP/IP • Four layers • Application layer • Transport layer • Internet layer • Network interface layer 6.15 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet The Protocol (TCP/IP) Reference Model Protocol Figure 6-4 This figure illustrates the four layers of the TCP/ IP reference model for communications. 6.16 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Communications Networks Types of Networks • Signals: digital vs. analog • Modem: Translates digital signals into analog form • Local-area networks (LANs) • Campus-area networks (CANs) • Peer-to-peer • Topologies: star, bus, ring • Metropolitan and wide-area networks • Wide-area networks (WANs) • Metropolitan-area networks (MANs) 6.17 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Communications Networks Functions of the Modem A modem is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone lines. The modem also translates analog signals back into digital form for the receiving computer. Figure 6-5 6.18 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Communications Networks Network Topologies Figure 6-6 The three basic network topologies are the bus, star, and ring. 6.19 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Communications Networks Physical Transmission Media • Twisted wire (modems) • Coaxial cable • Fiber optics and optical networks • Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) • Wireless transmission media and devices • Microwave • Satellites • Cellular telephones • Transmission speed (hertz, bandwidth) 6.20 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless Communications Networks BP Amoco’s Satellite Transmission System Figure 6-7 Communication satellites help BP Amoco transfer seismic data between oil exploration ships and research centers in the United States. 6.21 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet • What is the Internet? • Internet Addressing and Architecture • The Domain Name System • Hierarchical structure • Top-level domains • Internet Architecture and Governance • No formal management: IAB, ICANN, W3C • The Future Internet: IPv6 and Internet2 6.22 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet The Domain Name System Figure 6-8 The Domain Name System is a hierarchical system with a root domain, top-level domains, second-level domains, and host computers at the third level. 6.23 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Internet Network Architecture Figure 6-9 The Internet backbone connects to regional networks, which in turn provide access to Internet service providers, large firms, and government institutions. Network access points (NAPs) and metropolitan area exchanges (MAEs) are hubs where the backbone intersects regional and local networks and where backbone owners connect with one another. 6.24 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Internet Services • E-mail • Chatting and instant messaging • Newsgroups • Telnet • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • World Wide Web • VoIP • Virtual private network (VPN) 6.25 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Client/Server Computing on the Internet Figure 6-10 Client computers running Web browser and other software can access an array of services on servers over the Internet. These services may all run on a single server or on multiple specialized servers. 6.26 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet How Voice over IP Works An VoIP phone call digitizes and breaks up a voice message into data packets that may travel along different routes before being reassembled at the final destination. A processor nearest the call’s destination, called a gateway, arranges the packets in the proper order and directs them to the telephone number of the receiver or the IP address of the receiving computer. Figure 6-11 6.27 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet A Virtual Private Network Using the Internet This VPN is a private network of computers linked using a secure “tunnel” connection over the Internet. It protects data transmitted over the public Internet by encoding the data and “wrapping” them within the Internet Protocol (IP). By adding a wrapper around a network message to hide its content, organizations can create a private connection that travels through the public Internet. Figure 6-12 6.28 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Interactive Session: People Monitoring Employees on Networks: Unethical or Good Business? • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: • Should managers monitor employee e-mail and Internet usage? Why or why not? • Describe an effective e-mail and Web use policy for a company. 6.29 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet The World Wide Web • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): • • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): • • Addresses of Web pages E.g. http://www.megacorp.com/content/features/082602.html Web servers • 6.30 Communications standard used for transferring Web pages Uniform resource locators (URLs): • • • Formats documents for display on Web Software for locating and managing Web pages Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet • The World Wide Web Search engines • • • Shopping bots • • Use intelligent agent software for searching Internet for shopping information Semantic Web • 6.31 Started in early 1990s as relatively simple software programs using keyword indexes Today, major source of Internet advertising revenue via search engine marketing, using complex algorithms and page ranking techniques to locate results Collaborative effort to make Web searching more efficient by reducing the amount of human involvement in searching for and processing Web information Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet The World Wide Web • Web 2.0 • • Blogs: Chronological, informal Web sites created by individuals using easy-to-use weblog publishing tools • RSS (Really Simple Syndication): Syndicates Web content so aggregator software can pull content for use in another setting or viewing later • 6.32 Second-generation interactive Internet-based services enabling people to collaborate, share information, and create new services online Wikis: Collaborative Web sites where visitors can add, delete, or modify content on the site Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet How Google Works Figure 6-13 The Google search engine is continuously crawling the Web, indexing the content of each page, calculating its popularity, and storing the pages so that it can respond quickly to user requests to see a page. The entire process takes about one-half second. 6.33 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Major Web Search Engines Figure 6-14 Google is the most popular search engine on the Web, handling 56 percent of all Web searches. 6.34 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Global Internet Intranets and Extranets • Intranets • Use existing network infrastructure with Internet connectivity standards software developed for the Web • Create networked applications that can run on many types of computers • Protected by firewalls • Extranets • Allow authorized vendors and customers access to an internal intranet • Used for collaboration • Also subject to firewall protection 6.35 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Wireless devices • PDAs, BlackBerry, smart phones • Cellular systems • Competing standards for cellular service • United States: CDMA • Most of rest of world: GSM • Third-generation (3G) networks • Higher transmission speeds suitable for broadband Internet access 6.36 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Wireless computer networks and Internet access • Bluetooth (802.15) • Links up to 8 devices in 10-m area using low-power, radiobased communication • Useful for personal networking (PANs) • Wi-Fi (802.11) • Set of standard: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n • Used for wireless LAN and wireless Internet access • Use access points: Device with radio receiver/transmitter for connecting wireless devices to a wired LAN 6.37 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution A Bluetooth Network (PAN) Figure 6-15 Bluetooth enables a variety of devices, including cell phones, PDAs, wireless keyboards and mice, PCs, and printers, to interact wirelessly with each other within a small 30-foot (10meter) area. In addition to the links shown, Bluetooth can be used to network similar devices to send data from one PC to another, for example. 6.38 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution An 802.11 Wireless LAN Figure 6-16 Mobile laptop computers equipped with wireless network interface cards link to the wired LAN by communicating with the access point. The access point uses radio waves to transmit network signals from the wired network to the client adapters, which convert them into data that the mobile device can understand. The client adapter then transmits the data from the mobile device back to the access point, which forwards the data to the wired network. 6.39 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Wireless computer networks and Internet access • Wi-Fi (cont.) • Hotspots: One or more access points in public place to provide maximum wireless coverage for a specific area • Weak security features • WiMax (802.16) • Wireless access range of 31 miles • Require WiMax antennas • Broadband cellular wireless • Many cell services offer Wi-Fi capabilities for Internet access 6.40 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Radio frequency identification (RFID) • • Tags transmit radio signals over short distances to special RFID readers, which send data over network to computer for processing • Active RFID: Tags have batteries, data can be rewritten, range is hundreds of feet, more expensive • 6.41 Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and location Passive RFID: Range is shorter, also smaller, less expensive, powered by radio frequency energy Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Radio frequency identification (RFID) • Common uses: • Automated toll-collection • Tracking goods in a supply chain • • 6.42 Requires companies to have special hardware and software Reduction in cost of tags making RFID viable for many firms Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution How RFID Works RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a tag at distances ranging from 1 inch to 100 feet. The reader captures the data from the tag and sends them over a network to a host computer for processing. 6.43 Figure 6-17 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution Interactive Session: Organizations Wal-Mart Grapples with RFID • Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: • How is RFID technology related to Wal-Mart’s business model? How does it benefit suppliers? • What people, organization and technology factors explain why Wal-Mart suppliers have had trouble implementing RFID systems? • What conditions would make adopting RFID more favorable for suppliers? • Should Wal-Mart require all its suppliers to use RFID? Why or why not? Explain your answer. 6.44 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution • Wireless sensor networks • Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnected wireless devices embedded into physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces • Used to monitor building security, detect hazardous substances in air, monitor environmental changes, traffic, or military activity • Devices have built-in processing, storage, and radio frequency sensors and antennas • Require low-power, long-lasting batteries and ability to endure in the field without maintenance 6.45 Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 6 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Chapter Wireless Technology Wireless The Wireless Revolution A Wireless Sensor Network Figure 6-18 The small circles represent lower-level nodes and the larger circles represent high-end nodes. Lower-level nodes forward data to each other or to higher-level nodes, which transmit data more rapidly and speed up network performance. 6.46 ...
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