Chapter 0 (1) Summary

Chapter 0 (1) Summary - PROLOGUE (SUMMARY) Overview...

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PROLOGUE (SUMMARY) Overview Psychology traces its roots back to early recorded history when scholars reflected on the relationship between mind and body. Psychologists’ initial focus on the mind’s structure was later replaced by the study of its functions. As the science of behavior and mental processes, psychology has its origins in many disciplines and countries. The discipline is growing and globalizing. Psychology’s important issues include questions regarding stability versus change in personality, human rationality versus irrationality, and the relative contributions of biology and experience. Although the different perspectives on human nature have their own purposes and questions, they are complementary and together provide a fuller understanding of mind and behavior. Some psychologists conduct basic or applied research; others provide professional services, including assessing and treating troubled people. With its perspectives ranging from the biological to the social, and settings from the clinic to the laboratory, psychology has become a meeting place for many disciplines. Mastering psychology requires active study. A preview-read-think-review study method boosts students’ learning and performance. Psychology’s Roots Views of prescientific thinkers regarding the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate. In their attempt to understand human nature, early scholars examined the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate. Socrates and Plato argued that some ideas are innate. Furthermore, they viewed mind as separable from body and continuing after death. In contrast, Aristotle maintained that knowledge grows from our experience and, like the ancient Hebrews, believed that the mind and body are connected. In the 1700s, the Frenchman René Descrates agreed with Socrates and Plato regarding the
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Chapter 0 (1) Summary - PROLOGUE (SUMMARY) Overview...

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