Chapter 0 (2) Study Guide

Chapter 0 (2) Study Guide - Prologue The Story of...

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Prologue: The Story of Psychology Prologue Overview Psychology’s historical development and current activities lead us to define the field as the science of behavior and mental processes. This Prologue discusses the development of psychology from ancient times until today and the range of behaviors and mental processes being investigated by psychologists in each of the various specialty areas. In addition, it describes the seven major perspectives from which psychologists work. This is followed by an overview of the diverse subfields in which psychologists conduct research and provide professional services. The Prologue concludes with a Close - Up explaining how to get your study of psychology off on the right foot by learning ( and pledging to follow! ) the PRTR study method. This study method is also discussed in the essay at the beginning of this Study Guide. Psychology’s Roots ( pp. 1 - 9 ) David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to Focus on Vocabulary ” for an explanation: peekaboo; grist for psychology’s mill; long - winded; farming out; down - to - earth; wise - cracking; Magellans of the mind; mushrooming; unpack this definition; sift opinions and evaluate ideas; hunches. Section Preview First, skim this section, noting headings and boldface items. Then read the following objectives and, as you read the section, search for the information that will enable you to meet each objective. Answer guidelines are provided on page 10. 1. Trace the pre - scientific roots of psychology. 2. Describe the formal beginnings of the field of psychology. 3. Define psychology and identify several of its pioneers. Stepping Through the Section After you have read the section, complete the sentences and answer the questions. As you proceed, evaluate your performance by consulting the answers. Do not continue with the next section until you understand each answer. If you need to, review or reread the section in the textbook before continuing. 1. In the pre - scientific era, scholars such as ______________ in India and ______________ in China pondered the relationship between mind and body. 2. The Greek philosophers ______________ and ______________ viewed mind and body as ______________ ( inseparable/separable ) , and assumed that knowledge is ( inherited/learned ) . The Greek philosopher who argued that all knowledge comes from experiences stored in memories is ______________. 3. During the fourth century, the philosopher ______________ wrote about mind - body interactions and health. 4. In the 1600s, the views of the Greek philosophers were revived by , who believed that some ideas are innate; by Englishman , who became one of the founders of modern science; and who believed knowledge originates in experience. This idea, along with the principle that science flourishes through observation and experiment, is called 5. The first psychological laboratory was founded in 1879 by Wilhelm . His student, , introduced the school of ______________ , which used the method of to explore the basic elements of the mind. This
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